24 kinds of metal materials commonly used in mechanical and die processing and their characteristics

1. 45# steel – high quality carbon structural steel, is the most commonly used medium carbon quenched and tempered steel
Main features: the most commonly used medium carbon quenched and tempered steel has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low hardenability and easy to crack during water quenching. Small parts should be quenched and tempered, and large parts should be normalized. Application example: mainly used for manufacturing high strength moving parts, such as turbine impeller, compressor piston. Shaft, gear, rack, worm, etc. Attention should be paid to preheating before welding and stress relief annealing after welding.
2. Q235A (A3 steel) – the most commonly used carbon structural steel
Main features: high plasticity, toughness, weldability, cold stamping performance, certain strength and good cold bending performance. Application example: it is widely used in parts and welding structures with general requirements. Such as pull rod, connecting rod, pin, shaft, screw, nut, ferrule, bracket, frame, building structure, bridge, etc.
3. 40Cr — one of the most widely used steel, belongs to alloy structural steel
Main features: after quenching and tempering treatment, it has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low temperature impact toughness and low notch sensitivity, good hardenability, high fatigue strength when oil cooling, easy to crack when water cooling, medium cold bending plasticity, good machinability after tempering or quenching and tempering, but poor weldability, easy to crack, It should be preheated to 100 ~ 150 ℃ before welding. It is generally used in quenching and tempering state. It can also be treated by carbonitriding and high frequency surface quenching.
Application examples: after quenching and tempering, it is used to manufacture parts with medium speed and load, such as gear, shaft, worm, spline shaft and thimble sleeve of machine tool. After quenching and tempering and high frequency surface quenching, it is used to manufacture parts with high hardness and wear resistance, such as gear, shaft, spindle, crankshaft, mandrel, sleeve, pin, connecting rod, screw nut, inlet valve, etc, After quenching and tempering at medium temperature, it is used to manufacture heavy-duty and medium speed impact parts, such as oil pump rotor, slide block, gear, spindle, collar, etc.; after quenching and tempering at low temperature, it is used to manufacture heavy-duty, low impact and wear-resistant parts, such as worm, spindle, shaft, collar, etc.; after carbonitriding, it is used to manufacture transmission parts with large size and high impact toughness at low temperature, such as shaft, spindle, collar, etc Gear, etc.
4. HT150 — gray cast iron
Application examples: gear box, machine bed, box, hydraulic cylinder, pump body, valve body, flywheel, cylinder head, pulley, bearing cover, etc.
5. 35 — common materials of various standard parts and fasteners
Main features: proper strength, good plasticity, high cold plasticity and acceptable weldability. Local upsetting and wire drawing can be carried out in cold state. Low hardenability, use after normalizing or quenching and tempering application example: suitable for manufacturing small cross-section parts, parts that can bear large load, such as crankshaft, lever, connecting rod, shackle, various standard parts and fasteners.
6. 65Mn — commonly used spring steel
Application examples: small size flat, round spring, cushion spring, spring spring spring, also can make spring ring, valve spring, clutch spring, brake spring, cold coil spring, snap spring, etc.
7. 0Cr18Ni9 — the most commonly used stainless steel (American steel 304, Japanese steel SUS304)
Characteristics and application: as stainless heat-resistant steel is most widely used, such as food equipment, general chemical equipment, original industrial equipment.
8. Cr12 — common cold working die steel (American steel grade D3, Japanese steel grade skd1)
Characteristics and application: Cr12 Steel is a kind of widely used cold working die steel, which belongs to high carbon and high chromium ledeburite steel. The steel has good hardenability and wear resistance; As the carbon content of Cr12 Steel is as high as 2.3%, the impact toughness of Cr12 Steel is poor, it is easy to crack and form heterogeneous eutectic carbide; Due to its good wear resistance, Cr12 Steel is mostly used to manufacture cold stamping die, punch, blanking die, cold heading die, punch and die of cold extrusion die, drill sleeve, gauge, wire drawing die, embossing die, thread rolling plate, drawing die and cold pressing die for powder metallurgy.
9. DC53 — common cold working die steel imported from Japan
Characteristics and application: high strength and toughness cold working die steel, steel grade of Datong special steel (plant) in Japan. After high temperature tempering, it has high hardness, high toughness and good wire cutting performance. Used for precision cold stamping die, drawing die, thread rolling die, cold blanking die, punch, etc
10. Dccr12mov — wear resistant chromium steel
Compared with Cr12 Steel, Mo and V can reduce carbide segregation and improve hardenability. V can refine grain and increase toughness. This steel has high hardenability. It can be completely quenched when the cross section is below 400mm. It can still maintain good hardness and wear resistance at 300 ~ 400 ℃. Compared with Cr12 Steel, it has high toughness and small volume change during quenching, It also has high wear resistance and good comprehensive mechanical properties. Therefore, it can manufacture various kinds of dies with large section, complex shape and large impact, such as ordinary drawing die, punching die, blanking die, trimming die, rolling die, wire drawing die, cold extrusion die, cold cutting shears, circular saw, standard tools, measuring tools, etc.
11. SKD11 — ductile chromium steel
It is produced by Hitachi in Japan. The casting structure of the steel is improved technically, and the grain is refined. Compared with Cr12MoV, the toughness and wear resistance are improved, and the service life of the die is prolonged
12. D2 — high carbon and high chromium cold work steel
It is made in USA. It has high hardenability, hardenability, wear resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, good corrosion resistance after quenching and polishing, and small deformation after heat treatment. It is suitable to manufacture all kinds of cold working dies, cutting tools and measuring tools with high precision and long life, such as drawing die, cold extrusion die, cold shear knife, etc.
13. SKD11 (SLD) – high chromium steel with non deformable toughness
It is produced by Hitachi in Japan. As the content of Mo and V in the steel increases, the casting structure of the steel is improved, the grain size is refined, and the morphology of carbide is improved. Therefore, the strength and toughness (bending strength, deflection, impact toughness, etc.) of the steel are higher than those of skd1 and D2, the wear resistance is also increased, and the tempering resistance is higher, Such as drawing die, impact die of grinding wheel, etc.
14. DC53 — high toughness and high chromium steel
The hardness of heat treatment is higher than that of SKD11. After tempering at high temperature (520-530), the hardness can reach 62-63HRC, DC53 is superior to SKD11 in strength and wear resistance. The toughness of DC53 is twice that of SKD11. The toughness of DC53 in cold working die manufacturing rarely appears cracks and cracks. It greatly improves the service life. The residual stress is small. After high temperature turning back, the residual stress is reduced. Because the cracks and deformation after wire cutting are restrained. The machinability and abrasiveness are superior to SKD11. It is used for precision stamping die, cold forging die, deep drawing die, etc
15. Skh-9 — general high speed steel with high wear resistance and toughness
Used for cold forging die, Slitter, drill, reamer, punch, etc.
16. Asp-23 powder metallurgy high speed steel
Made in Sweden. Carbide distribution is very uniform, wear resistance, high toughness, easy processing, heat treatment, stable size. Used for punch, deep drawing die, drilling die, milling cutter, shear blade and other long-life cutting tools.
17. P20 — plastic mold of general requirements
Made in USA. It can be operated by electric etching. It is pre hardened hb270-300 in factory condition. Its quenching hardness is HRC52.
18. 718 – high demand plastic mold
Made in Sweden. Especially for electric etching operation. Pre hardened hb290-330 in factory condition. Quenching hardness HRC52
19. NAK80 — high mirror, high precision plastic mold
Made in Datong, Japan. Pre hardened hb370-400 in factory condition. Quenched hardness HRC52
20. S136 – anti corrosion and mirror polishing plastic mold
Made in Sweden. Pre hardened HB < 215. Quenched hardness HRC52.
21 、 H13 — common die casting die
Used for die casting, hot stamping die, aluminum extrusion die of aluminum, zinc, magnesium and alloy,
22. SKD61 — advanced die casting die
The service life of the electroslag remelting process is much longer than that of H13,
23, 8407 – advanced die casting die
Made in Sweden. Hot stamping die, aluminum extrusion die.
24. Fdac: sulfur is added to enhance its machinability

The hardness is 338-42HRC. It can be carved directly without quenching and tempering. It is used for small batch mould, simple mould, various resin products, sliding parts, mould parts with short delivery time, zipper mould and spectacle frame mould.

Source: China Flanges Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry (www.steeljrv.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

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