A Comprehensive Guide To Die Forging
What Is Die Forging?
Die forging is a forging method that uses a die on special die forging equipment to shape the blank and obtain forgings. This method produces forgings with precise dimensions, small machining allowances, and complex structures with high productivity.
Characteristics of die forging
In the die forging hammer or press with forging die will metal billet forging processing. Die forging process has high production efficiency, low labor intensity, accurate size, small machining allowance, and can forge complex shape forgings; suitable for mass production. However, the die cost is high, special die forging equipment is required, and it is not suitable for single piece or small batch production.
- 1. The shape of forgings can be more complex because of the die chamber to guide the flow of metal.
- 2. The forging flow lines inside the forging are distributed according to the contour of the forging, thus improving the mechanical properties and service life of the parts.
- 3. Simple operation, easy to realize mechanization and high productivity.
Types of die forging
According to different equipment, die forging is divided into hammer die forging, crank press die forging, flat forging machine die forging, friction press die forging, etc. The equipment used for die forging on the hammer is a die forging hammer, usually an air die forging hammer. For forgings with complex shapes, they are initially formed in the blank making die cavity and then forged in the forging die cavity.
Classified according to the structure of forging die: open die forging is called when there is a burr groove on the forging die to accommodate excess metal; On the contrary, if there is no burr flying groove on the forging die to accommodate excess metal, it is called closed die forging. It is called single die bore die forging that is directly formed from the original blank. For forgings with complex shape, it is called multi-mode bore die forging that requires several steps of preforming on the same forging die.
Precision die forging is developed on the basis of die forging, which can forge some parts with complex shapes and high dimensional accuracy, such as bevel gears, blades, aviation parts, etc.
What is open die forging?
Open die forging is the simplest forging process. Open die forging is a process in which a solid workpiece is placed between two dies and then the height of the workpiece is reduced by extrusion. This process is also called plane die forging.
Open die forging is the deformation and flow of metal in an incompletely restricted die bore. The die has a flash groove to accommodate excess metal. At the beginning of die forging, the metal flows to the die bore first. When the resistance of the die bore increases, part of the metal begins to flow to the flash groove along the horizontal direction to form a flash. With the continuous thinning of the flash and the reduction of the metal temperature, the resistance of metal flowing to the flash groove increases, forcing more metal to flow into the mold cavity. When the mold cavity is full, the excess metal flows out from the flash groove.
Open die forging
Open die forging has two parts: die bore and flash. When the upper and lower dies are closed, on the one hand, the metal flows to the die bore to fill and form, and on the other hand, the excess metal flows out of the die bore to become a flash, as shown in Fig. 1. The key to the flow process is that when the filling resistance is less than the resistance to the flash, the metal flows to the mold bore. At a certain moment, the filling resistance increases to be greater than the resistance to the flash, and the metal flows to the flash. As the upper die moves down, the flash becomes thinner, and the resistance to the flash increases, so that it is greater than the filling resistance. The metal flows into the mold cavity to ensure that the mold cavity is fully filled.
Fig.1 Schematic diagram of open die forging
Forming process of open die forging
The metal flow process in the open die forging process can be roughly divided into four stages, as shown in Fig. 2.
Fig.2 Metal forming process of open die forging
- (1) Free deformation or upsetting deformation stage. At this stage, the blank is subject to local loading and overall stress. The blank is subjected to upsetting deformation in the die bore and the height is reduced Δ H1, the radial dimension gradually increases until the blank contacts the groove wall, and the deformation force required for upsetting is small.
- (2) The burr forming stage begins, during which the blank continues to be pressed (reduction Δ H2) gradually fills the mold cavity to form a few burrs. At this stage, the metal flows in two directions. On the one hand, the metal fills the mold cavity, and on the other hand, it flows out from the mold bridge to form burrs. At this time, due to the resistance of the mold wall, especially the resistance of the burr bridge mouth (when the resistance is large enough), the metal is forced to fill the mold cavity, the radial flow rate of the metal is slowed down, and the required deformation force is significantly increased.
- (3) The stage of filling the cavity. After the burr is formed, as the die forging deformation continues, the reduction amount（ Δ H3) increases, the burr gradually thins, the width increases, the temperature decreases, and the resistance of metal flowing into the burr sharply increases. Due to the blocking effect of the burr, a more intense three-dimensional compressive stress is formed in the deformed metal. When the compressive stress is greater than the resistance of metal filling in the depth and corner of the mold bore, the metal is forced to continue to flow to the depth and corner of the mold bore, and fill the corners and ribs in the mold bore until the whole mold bore is fully filled.
- (4) The forging die is completely closed and the excess metal is extruded, which is the final forming stage of the forging. Due to the influence of process factors, usually the volume of blank is slightly larger than the volume of die bore. Therefore, when the die bore is full, the upper and lower dies are not closed. It is necessary to continue to compress the upper and lower dies to close, and the excess metal is completely discharged into the flash groove to ensure that the height and dimension of the forging meet the requirements of the drawing. However, this process should be shortened as much as possible, because the deformation resistance at this stage rises sharply, and the energy consumption at this time accounts for 30% – 50% of the energy consumed in the whole die forging process. Therefore, the Δ The smaller H4 is, the better. It is very important to reduce the deformation force of die forging. At the same time, this stage has a great impact on avoiding structural defects, improving the quality and productivity of forgings.
Advantages of open die forging
- Better fatigue resistance and improved microstructure.
- Continuous grain flow and finer grain size.
- Enhanced strength and longer part life.
- Reduction in material waste.
- Reduced opportunities for voids.
- Valuable cost savings.
What is closed die forging?
Closed die forging is a pressure forging process, in which the dies face each other and cover all or part of the workpiece. The heated raw material, close to the shape or size of the finished forging, is placed in the lower die. The shape of the forging is put into the upper or lower die as a negative image. From top to bottom, the impact of the upper die on the raw material makes it into the required forging shape. Closed die forging refers to die forging without flash. Generally, the gap between the upper die and the lower die is not changed during the forging process. The blank is formed in the closed die bore around without lateral flash. A small amount of excess material will form longitudinal flash. The flash will be removed in the subsequent process.
Closed die forging
Closed die forging process video
Forming principle and forming mode of closed die forging
Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of open die forging and closed die forging. During open die forging, the forging forms lateral flash along the parting surface, as shown in Fig. 3a. Closed die forging is a kind of forging in which a metal blank is formed into a part with a shape and dimensional accuracy very close to or even identical to that of a part by applying force through a punch in a closed cavity composed of a punch and a die. During closed die forging, no lateral flash is formed around the forging. The main forming methods of closed die forging are shown in Fig. 3b-fig. 3D, in which Fig. 3b is the closed die forging of integral female die, FIG. 3C is the closed die forging of separable female die with fixed lower female die, and Fig. 3D is the closed die forging of separable female die with floating lower female die, which is the closed forging proposed by Japanese scholars.
Fig.3 Schematic of open-die forging and close-die forging (a) Open-die forging (b) Close-die forging with integral die (c) Close-die forging with dividable die and fixed counter die (d) Close-die forging with dividable die and floating counter die
The closed die forging can be divided into upsetting closed die forging and extrusion closed die forging according to the forming mode. The forming process of upsetting closed die forging which is most used is explained below.
Forming process of upsetting closed die forging
The forming process  of upsetting closed die forging can be divided into three stages, as shown in Fig. 4.
- (1) Open upsetting stage (FIG. 4A). Open upsetting is free upsetting, starting from the contact between the blank and the punch or the surface of the upper die bore to the contact between the blank metal and the side wall of the die bore (widest part). Like open upsetting, closed upsetting can also be divided into integral closed upsetting and partial closed upsetting. The former is located by the outer diameter of the blank, while the latter is located by the undeformed part of the blank.
- (2) Filling the angular gap stage (Fig. 4b). That is, from the time when the drum side of the blank contacts the side wall of the female die to the time when the entire side surface is in contact with the die wall and the die bore angular gap is completely filled. In this stage, the flow of the deformed metal is blocked by the mold wall, and each part of the deformed metal is in different three-dimensional compressive stress state. With the increase of the deformation degree of the blank, the lateral pressure on the die wall gradually increases until the die bore is fully filled.
- (3) Extrusion end flash stage (Fig. 4C). That is, the excess metal after filling the die bore is squeezed into the gap between the male and female dies under the continuously increasing pressure to form an annular longitudinal flash. Flash not only increases the energy consumption, but also accelerates the wear of the die. Therefore, the best die forging force of upsetting closed die forging is the force when the die forging process stops immediately after the fillet that is most difficult to form is filled.
Fig.4 Forming process of close-die forging (a) Open-die upsetting (b) Corner filling (c) End flash extrusion
Characteristics of closed die forging process
- (1) The utilization rate of metal materials is high. The closed die forging, especially the split die closed die forging, does not produce flash, and the die forging inclination is 1 ° – 3 °, or even no inclination, and the blind hole perpendicular to the forging direction can be forged. These advantages can increase the utilization rate of metal materials from 50% – 70% to more than 70% – 90%, that is to say, from the die forging with flash to the closed die forging with separable female die without flash, the average metal material can be saved by more than 0.20 t per 1 t of forgings produced.
- (2) Improve labor productivity. The use of split die closed die forging can often reduce or even cancel the blank making process of die forging, so that the number of die forging steps can be reduced from 2-4 to 1-2. In addition, the trimming step and some auxiliary steps can be omitted, and the productivity can be increased by 50% – 70% on average. Since the blank making step is reduced, the trimming step and auxiliary steps are omitted, and the good positioning of the blank in the die bore can be ensured, it is easier to realize the automation of die forging production.
- (3) Improve the quality of forgings. The closed die forging can make the metal fiber distribute along the contour of the part, and the deformed metal is in the state of three-dimensional compressive stress, which is conducive to improving the plasticity of the metal material and preventing the looseness inside the part. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the product can be improved by more than 25% compared with the general open die forging; In addition, since there is no flash, the fiber will not be exposed due to trimming, which is favorable for the corrosion-resistant atmosphere of stress corrosion sensitive parts and materials.
- (4) Save heating energy consumption. The saving of heating energy consumption is accompanied by the improvement of material utilization rate. According to the statistics of relevant data, when the open flash die forging is changed to the closed flash free die forging, the material utilization rate can be increased by 15% on average. Therefore, the electric energy or other energy for heating the forging blank can also be saved by 15%.
Main advantages of closed die forging
Unlike investment casting, the initial cost of developing a dolly for a metal part in closed die forging is quite high, but in contrast, if the part is large, it is the most cost effective method of metal forming due to the low cost per part.
During closed-die forging, the extrusion of the part between dollies will refine the internal grain and improve the mechanical properties, especially the strength, of the closed-die forged part. Therefore, when safety factor and strength are considered, such as lifting and rigging hardware, closed die forging will be the only choice.
Because the product is deformed in a high precision forging die, the tolerances of closed die forged parts are always tight. And the surface finish is always good. Usually, we can keep the closed die forged parts within a tolerance of +/-0.5 mm. In this way, this forging technique is a net or near-net shape process that requires little or no machining. Therefore, for the same parts made by forging and casting, closed die forging will have a significant advantage because of its lower machining costs.
Material savings. If you have studied closed die forging, then you will know that the only material waste in the forging process is flash. Such flash will be moved by the trim die, after which you will have a finished forging blank. Therefore, we can see that flash is the only excess material, but it can be recycled.
Closed die forging services in China can offer additional price advantages as well as other advantages.
There are no restrictions on the materials used for closed die forging, they can be steel, aluminum, brass, etc. Although closed die forging has many benefits, this does not mean that it can be used to make all metal parts, which is not feasible for thin and complex shaped parts. Therefore, each metal forming process has its own limitations.
The geometry, dimensional accuracy and surface quality of forgings are close to the products to the maximum extent, and flash is eliminated. Compared with open die forging, closed die forging can greatly improve the utilization rate of metal materials.
Necessary conditions for adopting closed die forging process:
- 1. The blank volume is accurate.
- 2. The blank shape is reasonable and can be accurately positioned in the mold bore.
- 3. The striking energy or striking force of the equipment can be controlled.
- 4. The equipment is equipped with ejection device.
What is single die bore die forging?
Single die bore die forging means that there is only one die bore on a pair of dies; This die bore is the final forging die bore.
What is multi mode bore die forging?
Multi mode bore die forging means that there are multiple die bores on a pair of dies. From the initial die bore to the final forging die bore, each die bore completes a die forging step.
What is precision die forging?
Precision die forging is a die forging process with complex shape and high forging precision forged on die forging equipment. Such as precision die forged bevel gears. The tooth shaped part can be directly forged without further cutting. The dimensional accuracy of die forgings can reach IT12 – IT15, and the surface roughness Ra is 3.2 – 1.6 μm.
Process of precision die forging
- ① Draw the forging drawing according to the product part drawing.
- ② Determine the die forging process and auxiliary processes (including removal of flying edges. burr removal. etc.). determine the size between processes. determine the heating method and heating specification.
- ③ Determine the method of removing the surface defects of the billet.
- ④ Determine the size and quality of the billet and its allowable tolerance. and choose the method of undercutting.
- ⑤ Select precision die forging equipment.
- ⑥ Determine the billet lubrication and die lubrication and the cooling method of the die.
- ⑦ Determine the cooling method and specification of forging. and determine the heat treatment method of forging.
- ⑧ Propose technical requirements and inspection requirements for forgings.
Process requirements of precision die forging
The process requirements of precision die forging are as follows.
- ① Billet preparation. Precision die forging has high requirements for the billet. requiring small quality tolerances. small section collapse angle. flat end and perpendicular to the billet axis. the surface of the billet should not have pockmarks. cracks. pits. large scratches or bruises; and forging before the surface must be cleaned (grinding. polishing. pickling. etc.). and to remove the surface of the oil. slag. bruises. dents. etc.. Aluminum alloy precision die forging mostly uses sawing and turning to cut the material. of which band sawing is more commonly used.
- ② Blank heating. Need to use no oxidation. less oxidation heating method. should be heated to minimize the degree of oxide skin.
- ③ Fine forging process and press down amount. Precision die forging. can use the crankshaft forging machine and fine forging machine or other different equipment for joint die forging. Multiple repetitions of die forging. generally in the ordinary die forging and then precision forging 2-3 times. its accuracy can reach ± 0.2 – ± 0.3mm. the surface roughness value in Ra6.3 or less. In order to achieve a higher precision size. the final cold pressing can be carried out on the finishing press. whose accuracy can reach ±0.1mm and the surface roughness value can be below Ra0.80.
- ④ Cleaning between processes. Forging production between several processes must be inspected and cleaned up. only the billet surface defects grinding or polishing clean. in order to carry out the next precision die forging process.
- ⑤ Lubrication. Lubrication can make the deformation uniform and increase the mobility of the metal. However. too thin or too thick lubrication will bring adverse consequences. lubrication must be moderate.
Process characteristics of precision die forging
Precision die forging is an advanced process to improve the accuracy and surface quality of forgings. It can forge parts with complex shapes and high dimensional accuracy. such as bevel gears. blades. etc. Its main process features are.
- 1. The size of the original billet needs to be calculated precisely and the material is placed strictly according to the quality of the billet. Otherwise. it will increase the dimensional tolerance of forging parts and reduce the accuracy.
- 2. It is necessary to clean the surface of the billet finely to remove the oxide. decarburization layer and other defects on the surface of the billet.
- 3. In order to improve the dimensional accuracy of forgings and reduce surface roughness. oxidation-free and oxidation less heating should be used to minimize the oxidation skin formed on the surface of the billet.
- 4. In order to minimize oxidation and improve the quality of forgings. the heating temperature of precision forging is low. for carbon steel. the forging temperature is between 900-950 ℃. called warm die forging.
- 5. The accuracy of precision die forging depends largely on the machining accuracy of the forging die. Therefore. the precision of the precision forging die chamber must be very high. Generally. it should be two levels higher than the accuracy of the forging. Precision forging die must have guide pillar guide structure to ensure accurate die closing. In order to exclude the gas in the die chamber. reduce the metal flow resistance. so that the metal better fill the die chamber. in the concave die should be open exhaust small hole.
- 6. Die forging should be well lubricated and cooled forging die.
- 7. Precision die forging is generally in the rigidity. high precision die forging equipment. such as crank press. friction press or high-speed hammer. etc..
Application of precision die forging
Precision die forging is a new process based on the development of ordinary die with less and no cutting. It is some parts on the past need cutting processing to achieve the accuracy requirements of the part directly forged or only need to stay a small amount of grinding scenery. Therefore. the use of precision die forging process needs to put forward more stringent technical requirements for the relevant aspects of die forging. such as: the quality of the blank material and surface quality control; prefabricated blank reasonable design; blank less. no oxidation heating; heating specification and cooling specification control; die manufacturing and use of precision control; suitable lubrication and cooling conditions selected.
Precision die forging has the significant advantages of saving metal and reducing cutting time. however. it will make part of the cost increase due to the strengthening of the relevant aspects of die forging. Therefore. whether to choose precision die forging process for specific products should be based on the production of finished parts of the comprehensive economic indicators and the special requirements of the structure and performance of the parts for comprehensive consideration.
Closed-Die Forging Vs. Open-Die Forging
Open-die forging and closed-die forging are two different ways of producing forgings and other metal parts. Open die forging is performed between flat dies with no precut profiles or shapes while closed die forging can produce net shape forgings and near-net shape forgings with less machining required than open-die forgings. Closed-die forging processes require less of an initial investment than open-die forging but open-die forgings tend to be produced on larger pieces of material due to the cost effectiveness of producing small parts through the use of multiple dies in one operation versus having several machines dedicated only for small part production. Closed die forgings are generally produced at a quicker rate than open die forged parts but this can also depend upon how many operations must be completed before assembly begins (e.g., machining prior workpieces).
Open-die forging is performed between flat dies with no precut profiles or shapes.
Open-die forging is a process in which metal is forged between two flat dies. The dies are flat and have no precut profiles or shapes. The dies are usually made of hardened steel.
The metal is hammered between the two dies, which causes it to become compressed and heated to its forging temperature (about 1,100°F). As the hammering continues, the shape of the workpiece changes from round bar stock into a desired shape.
Closed-die forging can produce net shape forgings and near-net shape forgings with less machining required than open-die forgings.
There are two primary methods of forging: open-die and closed-die. Both processes create a plastic deformation in the metal that allows it to be shaped, but the difference lies in how the metal is heated during processing.
When used for large parts (such as crankshafts), closed die forgings can save valuable time by eliminating secondary operations like heat treating and grinding away excess material from rough castings. The tools used for this process are typically designed to make several parts at once, thus increasing efficiency while reducing costs per part produced compared to an equivalent open die process where each part must be individually machined after forging.
Open-die forging processes require less of an initial investment than closed-die forging.
Open-die forgings are also less expensive to set up than closed-die forgings. In addition, open die forging requires less equipment and energy than closed die forging.
Open-die forging is usually limited to larger pieces with closed-die forging capable of smaller workpieces. Closed-die forging is usually limited to smaller pieces with open die forging capable of larger workpieces.
There are many reasons for this, but the most important one is the limitations of each process. Open die forging and closed die forging both have their own limitations on size, shape and material selection.
Closed-die forging produces more waste than open die forging.
Closed die forgings require longer production times and provide less flexibility in product design. However, they can produce higher quality forgings because the metal is shaped throughout the entire forming process, rather than only at the beginning or end of it.
Closed-die forgings are generally produced at a quicker rate of production than open-die forgings.
This is due to the fact that closed die forging can be done in an automated fashion, whereas open die forging must be manhandled manually. In addition, closed die forgings are able to produce net shape and near-net shape forgings with less machining required than open-die forgings.
Each process has its advantages and disadvantages depending on the product being forged and the budget of the customer.
The advantages of closed-die forging are that it produces a more uniform grain structure throughout the part, and it has greater forming capacity than open die forging. The disadvantages of closed die forging include higher costs due to its capital equipment requirements, slower production rates, lower productivity per operator (due to larger presses), and a higher degree of tooling complexity.
There is no one process that is the best for every job. The advantages and disadvantages of each process depend on the product being forged and the budget of the customer.
Preparation of die forging
The forging die for die forging consists of two modules, upper and lower, with the die chamber being the working part of the forging die, half of the upper and half of the lower die. It is fixed to the hammer anvil and the working table with dovetails and wedges; and guided by latches or guide posts to prevent misalignment of the upper and lower modules. The metal billet is deformed according to the shape of the die chamber.
The process of die forging is billet making. Pre-forging and final forging. The chamber of the final forging die is made according to the size and shape of the forging piece. The shape of the final forging die is determined by the size and shape of the forgings, plus allowances and deviations. There are two types of forging: open die forging has a burr groove around the die chamber, the excess metal flows into the groove after forming, and the burr is removed at the end; closed die forging has only a small burr at the end, or no burr if the billet is precise.
How to find qualified die forging manufacturers?
Finding the right forging manufacturer is no easy task. But if you know what to look for, you will be able to find the perfect die forging manufacturer. Here are some of the things that you should consider when choosing a suitable dies forging manufacturer:
Is the forging manufacturer up to date with the latest forging technologies?
As you might expect, some of the forging manufacturers you will find on the internet have been in business for a long time. Others have recently started manufacturing dies and molds for die forging, and may not be as experienced or up to date with the latest forging technologies.
It’s important to consider whether your potential die forging manufacturer has experience working with specific metals or alloys because different metals require different methods of heat treatment and hardening techniques that can affect how well your final product performs. If you are looking for information about other materials used in the manufacturing industry such as tool steel, stainless steel or nickel alloy then check out this article on what material is best suited for each type of application: What Material Is Best Suited For Each Type Of Application?
If a company hasn’t updated their equipment since metal casting was first invented thousands of years ago then there is no guarantee they will be able to meet your needs today. In addition, if they haven’t invested in new technology that allows them greater control over dimensional accuracy then it may take longer than expected due process time needed before production begins!
Does the forging manufacturer have a long list of satisfied clients?
As part of your search for a high-quality forging manufacturer, it is important to ask about the length and quality of their client list. This information can give you an idea about the credibility and reputation of the company in question.
If possible, you should request references from other clients. When asking for references from previous customers, make sure to choose your questions carefully. For example:
What was your experience with [name]?
Were you happy with their work?
Would you recommend them to others?
Does the forging manufacturer have a modern facility?
If you are looking to purchase a die forging process and want to know if the manufacturer is qualified, or if they are just posing as such, there are several things that you can look for. You should ask them about their facility. If they have been in business for more than 10 years, then they most likely have some type of facility that is modern and clean.
Their facility will have enough space to accommodate the forging process. They should also have a quality control laboratory where they test all forged parts before they leave the factory floor. A testing laboratory would be beneficial as well because it will give customers peace of mind knowing their products were tested before leaving the factory floor.
Finally, manufacturers who offer these services should also have a machine shop within their facilities where modifications can be made after production has been completed by adding holes or making other alterations necessary for installation purposes
Forging manufacturer must have well-trained personnel.
The manufacturing company should have well-trained personnel. The forging manufacturer should have a training program, a manual, and a schedule for the training room.
What is the quality control process of your forging manufacturer?
The quality control process of a forging manufacturer can be as simple as visual inspection or as complicated as an in-depth series of tests and approvals. As a rule, however, it’s best to choose a die forging company that has a wide range of testing options for their products. Die forgers who perform only one type of test may not have been able to detect problems with your product before they ship it out to you. For example, if you order 100 custom die forgings and only three fail in testing, this could mean that 97% were good but 1% had defects—and those three defective forgings could end up costing thousands or even tens of thousands in replacement costs down the line.* How does your forging supplier handle mistakes?
Every business makes mistakes from time to time; the key is how quickly those mistakes are fixed. A good company will offer refunds or replacements for their products when something goes wrong (even if it’s not their fault), while others might simply try and shrug off any problems by blaming them on customers’ usage patterns (which isn’t fair). The best way to tell which approach works best with yours is simply asking your supplier if they have kept any customer files from past orders where things didn’t work out perfectly—it’ll give some insight into whether or not this kind of thing happens regularly enough that they’re willing/able to handle it appropriately without causing too much trouble overall.”
Do your research and find out what qualifications you need from your dies forging manufacturers. Then stick to that criteria.
When you have decided to begin your search for a qualified die forging manufacturer, there are many ways that you can go about this process. You can use the internet or ask for references from previous customers. These methods will help you find the best possible manufacturer for your needs and ensure that they are qualified enough to produce the type of dies for which you need them.
Do your research and find out what qualifications you need from your dies forging manufacturers. Then stick to that criteria when searching for one online or asking around. This way, you’ll be able to avoid low-quality businesses who don’t meet those standards, saving yourself time and money later down the road when it comes time to work together more closely on projects like these ones here!
We hope that by using this list of questions you can find the best die forging manufacturer for your needs. We want to make sure that our customers get the best value for their money and will stay with us for years to come.
Source: China Forgings Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry (www.steeljrv.com)
(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)
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