ASTM A 182/A 182M – 96: Forged or Rolled Alloy – Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High Temperature Service

ASTM A 182/A 182M – 96

Forged or Rolled Alloy – Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High Temperature Service

This specification covers forged low alloy and stainless steel piping components for use in pressure systems. These include flanges, fittings, valves and similar parts manufactured to dimensional standards such as ASME/ANSI. Products made to this specification are limited to a maximum weight of 10,000 lb (4,540 kg).

Note

– Although low allow steels are covered by this standard, only stainless steels (martensitic, ferritic, austenitic and duplex) are included in this summary.

Dimensions and Tolerances

  • Dimensions and Tolerances. ASME/ANSI specifications B16.5 and B16.11 are referenced. – Flange Dimensions and Tolerances

    are covered in Section 8 (see page 8-1).

    Manufacture

  • Materials. Refer to chemical composition table. (stainless steel grades only shown). Elements not specified in the table are not permitted, specifically selenium or other elements added for free-machining properties.

  • The steel may be melted by electric-furnace, or vacuum-furnace, or by either of these followed by vacuum or electroslag- consumable remelting. Vacuum melting or remelting is not suitable for grades containing or modified by nitrogen. Grade F XM-27Cb may be electron-beam melted.

  • Manufacture. The steel is forged or rolled as near as possible to size and shape of the product. Small cylindrical parts (excluding flanges) may be machined directly from forged or rolled bar without additional hot working (limits defined in ASTM A 234 apply for martensitic steels, in A 403 for austenitic steels and A 815 for duplex steels). Elbows, returns and tees are not machined directly from bar.

  • Heat treatment. Refer to heat treatment table. Heat treatment of forgings may be performed before machining. For martensitic and ferritic grades, liquid quench followed by tempering is permitted, subject to purchaser agreement. Small cylindrical parts (excluding flanges) machined directly from forged or rolled austenitic steel may be furnished annealed to this specification with subsequent light cold drawing or straightening permitted. (See also S9).

  • Marking. Each forging is marked with manufacturers name, heat number (or heat identification), designation of service rating, specification number, grade (e.g. F 304) and size. Additionally: QT = Liquid quenched and tempered W = Welded WNS = Not post repair weld heat treated.

    Finish and Repair

  • Appearance. Forgings have a workmanlike finish and shall be free of scale, machining burns and injurous, imperfections (i.e. those that encroach on minimum wall thickness).

  • Defect repair by grinding or machining. The following may be removed:

    • Surface discontinuity as above.

    • Mechanical marks, abrasions or pits deeper than 1/16 in (1.6 mm).

  • Defect repair by welding:

    • Permitted unless purchaser prohibits (S7).

    • Defect removal by chipping or grinding is verified by magnetic particle inspection.

    • Repair is limited to 10% of surface area and 331/3% of nominal wall thickness.

    • Repair welding electrodes and post weld repair heat treatments are defined in A 182 but are not detailed in this summary.

      Ordering Information

      Item

      Notes

      Specification number

      ASTM A 182/A 182M – 96

      Quantity

      Number of fittings

      Size and pressure class 

      or dimensions

      Manufacturing standard (e.g. ASME/ANSI B16.5, B16.11)

      Grade

      Refer to chemical composition table

      Additional Requirements

      See optional and supplementary requirements S1 to S15

      Mandatory Testing

  • Heat analysis. Each heat or furnace ladle of steel to be analysed. Results to conform to chemical composition table.

  • Tension Test. One specimen tested from each heat. Specimen to be heat treated with the product.

  • Hardness Test. Applicable to martensitic, ferritic and duplex stainless steels only. Two pieces tested per batch, minimum.

  • Grain Size. Applicable to the following grades.

    • Grades F304H, F309H, F310H and F316H shall be No 6 or coarser.

    • Grade F321H, F347H and F348H shall be No 7 or coarser.

      Optional and Supplementary Requirements

  • Approval of Drawings. Manufacturer may be required to submit drawings showing rough forging before machining and exact location of test specimen.

  • Inspection by Purchaser. The purchaser may inspect the manufacture and testing of products, provided inspection does not interfere unnecessarily with the manufacturer’s operations.

  • S1 Micro-etch. A sample forging shall be sectioned and etched to show flow lines and internal imperfections. Test details to be agreed with purchaser.

  • S1 Product Analysis. A product analysis made from one representative forging of each size and shape. Each forging checked following failure. Test results reported to purchaser.

  • S1 Tension Tests. One tension specimen obtained from specified location on one representative forging from each heat as agreed with purchaser.

  • S1 Magnetic Particle Examination. All accessible surfaces of the finished forging to be examined in accordance with Test Method A 275/A 275M, as agreed with purchaser.

  • S1 Liquid Penetrant Examination. All accessible surfaces to be examined in accordance with Practice E 165, as agreed with the purchaser.

  • S1 Hydrostatic Testing. Pressure agreed with purchaser.

  • S1 Repair Welding. No repair welding to be permitted without approval of the purchaser.

  • S1 Heat Treatment Details. Test report details of heat treating cycle required.

  • S1 Material for Optimum Resistance to Stress- Corrosion Cracking. Austenitic stainless steel to be furnished in solution- annealed condition with no subsequent cold working. Straightening of bars from which parts are machined is permitted unless prohibited by purchaser.

  • S1 Corrosion Tests. Austenitic and ferritic stainless steels shall pass intergranular corrosion tests in accordance with Practice E of Practice A 262. The number of specimens and their source and location are to be agreed with purchaser.

  • S1 Special Filler Metal. In repair welded F316, F316L, F316H, and F316N forgings, the deposited weld metal shall conform to E308 composition wire. Forgings repair welded with E308 weld metal shall be marked F W308.

  • S1 Hardness Test. Each forging to be tested to meet requirements of hardness table.

  • S1 Alternate Heat Treatment (Grade F91). Nonstainless grade F91 is not covered in this summary.

  • S1 Heat Treatment of Austenitic Forgings. Treatment specified by purchaser. Test report to be supplied by manufacturer.

  • S1 Grain Size for Austenitic Grades. Forgings made from austenitic grades other than H grades to be tested in accordance with Test Method E 112 for average grain size as agreed with purchaser.

    Tensile and Hardness Requirements

    Grade

    UNS

    Tensile Streng min

    th

    Yield Strength1min

    Elongation in 2 in (50 mm) or 4D, min

    Reduction of area, min

    Brinell Hardness HB

    ksi

    MPa

    ksi

    MPa

    %

    %

    Martensitic Stainless Steels:

    F6a Class 1

    S41000

    70

    485

    40

    275

    18

    35.0

    143-187

    F6a Class 2

    S41000

    85

    585

    55

    380

    18

    35.0

    167-229

    F6a Class 3

    S41000

    110

    760

    85

    585

    15

    35.0

    235-302

    F6a Class 4

    S41000

    130

    895

    110

    760

    12

    35.0

    263-321

    F6b

    S41026

    110-135

    760-930

    90

    620

    16

    45.0

    235-285

    F6NM

    S41500

    115

    790

    90

    620

    15

    45.0

    295 max

    Ferritic Stainless Steels:

    FXM- 27Cb

    S44627

    60

    415

    35

    240

    20.0

    45.0

    190 max

    F429

    S42900

    60

    415

    35

    240

    20.0

    45.0

    190 max

    F430

    S43000

    60

    415

    35

    240

    20.0

    45.0

    190 max

    Austenitic Stainless Steels:

    All

    All

    752

    5152

    30

    205

    30

    50

    F304L

    S30403

    703

    4853

    25

    170

    30

    50

    F304N

    S30451

    80

    550

    35

    240

    304

    505

    F316L

    S31603

    70

    485

    25

    170

    30

    50

    F316N

    S31651

    80

    550

    35

    240

    304

    505

    F317L

    S31703

    70

    485

    25

    170

    30

    50

      FXM – 11F

    S21904

    90

    620

    50

    345

    45

    60

      FXM- 19

    S20910

    100

    690

    55

    380

    35

    55

    F10

    S33100

    80

    550

    30

    205

    30

    50

    F44

    S31254

    94

    650

    44

    300

    35

    50

    F45

    S30815

    87

    600

    45

    310

    40

    50

    F46

    S30600

    78

    540

    35

    240

    40.0

    50.0

    F47

    S31725

    75

    525

    30

    205

    40.0

    50.0

    F48

    S31726

    80

    550

    35

    240

    40.0

    50.0

    F49

    S34565

    115

    795

    60

    415

    35

    40

    F56

    S33228

    73

    500

    27

    185

    30

    35

    Duplex Stainless Steels

    F50

    S31200

    100-

    130

    690-900

    65

    450

    25

    50

    F51

    S31803

    90

    620

    65

    450

    25

    45

    F52

    S32950

    100

    690

    70

    485

    15

    F53

    S32750

    1166

    8006

    806

    5506

    15

    310 max

    F54

    S32740

    116

    800

    80

    550

    15

    30

    310 max

    F55

    S32760

    109-

    130

    750-895

    80

    550

    25.0

    45

    F57

    S39277

    118

    820

    85

    585

    25

    50

    Notes

    1 Determined by the 0.2% offset method. For ferritic steels only, the 0.5% extension-under-load method may also be used. 2 For sections over 5 in. [130 mm] in thickness, the minimum tensile strength shall be 70 ksi [485 MPa].

    3 For sections over 5 in. [130 mm] in thickness, the minimum tensile strength shall be 65 ksi [450 MPa]. 4 Longitudinal. The transverse elongation shall be 25% in 2 in. or 50 mm, min.

    1. Longitudinal. The transverse reduction of area shall be 45% min.

    2. For sections over 2 in. [50 mm] in thickness, the minimum tensile strength shall be 109 ksi [750 MPa]; the minimum yield strength shall be 75 ksi [515 MPa].

    • All = All austenitic grades as listed in the chemical composition table except as identified in this table.

      Heat Treatment

      Temperature

      Cooling Media

      Quench Cool below

      Tempering Temp

      Grade

      UNS

      Heat Treatment

      °F min

      °C

      min

      °F

      °C

      °F min

      °C min

      Martensitic Stainless Steels:

      F6a Class 1

      S41000

      Anneal Normalise

      & temper Temper

      NS NS NS

      NS NS NS

      Furnace Cool Air Cool NA

      NA 400 NA

      NA 205 NA

      NA 1325 1325

      NA 725

      725

      F6a Class 2

      S41000

      Anneal Normalise

      & temper Temper

      NS NS NS

      NS NS NS

      Furnace Cool Air Cool NA

      NA 400 NA

      NA 205 NA

      NA 1250 1250

      NA 675

      675

      F6a Class 3

      S41000

      Anneal Normalise

      & temper

      NS NS

      NS NS

      Furnace Cool Air Cool

      NA 400

      NA 205

      NA 1100

      NA 595

      F6a Class 4

      S41000

      Anneal Normalise

      & temper

      NS NS

      NS NS

      Furnace Cool Air Cool

      NA 400

      NA 205

      NA 1000

      NA 540

      F6b

      S41026

      Anneal Normalise

      & temper

      1750

      1750

      955

      955

      Furnace Cool Air Cool

      NA 400

      NA 205

      NA 1150

      NA 620

      F6NM

      S41500

      Normalise & temper

      1850

      1010

      Air Cool

      200

      95

      1040-1120

      560-600

      Ferritic Stainless Steels:

      FXM- 27Cb

      S44627

      Anneal

      1850

      1010

      Furnace Cool

      NA

      NA

      NA

      NA

      F429

      S42900

      Anneal

      1850

      1010

      Furnace Cool

      NA

      NA

      NA

      NA

      F430

      S43000

      Anneal

      NS

      NS

      Furnace Cool

      NA

      NA

      NA

      NA

      Austenitic Stainless Steels1:

      All

      All

      Solution treat & quench

      1900

      1040

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      F321H

      S32109

      Solution treat & quench

      1925

      1050

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      F347H

      S34709

      Solution treat & quench

      1925

      1050

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      F348H

      S34809

      Solution treat & quench

      2000

      1100

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      F44

      S31254

      Solution treat & quench

      2100

      1150

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      F46

      S30600

      Solution treat & quench

      2010-

      2140

      1100-

      1140

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      F49

      S34565

      Solution treat & quench

      2050

      1120

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      F56

      S33228

      Solution treat & quench

      2050-

      2160

      1120-

      1180

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      Duplex Stainless Steels:

      F50

      S31200

      Solution treat & quench

      1925

      1050

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      F51

      S31803

      Solution treat & quench

      1870

      1020

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      F52

      S32950

      Solution treat2& quench

      1825-

      1875

      995-

      1025

      Water

      NS

      NS

      NA

      NA

      F53

      S32750

      Solution treat & quench

      1880

      1025

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      F54

      S32740

      Solution treat & quench

      1920-

      2060

      1050-

      1125

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      F55

      S32760

      Solution treat & quench

      2010-

      2085

      1100-

      1140

      Liquid

      500

      260

      NA

      NA

      F57

      S39277

      Solution treat & quench

      1940

      1060

      Liquid

      175

      80

      NA

      NA

      Notes

      1. Austenitic grades (except grades F304H, F316H, F321, F321H, F347, F347H, F348, F348H) may be individually quenched following hot working of a forging while its temperature is not less than the minimum solution treating temperature.

      2. Solution treated for 30 min/in of thickness, at temperature within range as stated in table.

    • NA = Not Applicable.

    • NS = Not Specified.

    • All = All austenitic grades as listed in the chemical composition table except as identified.

    • Post weld repair heat treatment is not covered in this summary. Refer to the full specification for these details. Duplex grades do not require post weld repair heat treatment.

Chemical Composition

Grade

UNS

&DUERn

C

0DQJDQHVe

Mn

3KRVSKRUXs

P

6XOSKXr

S

6LOLFRn Si

Composition Percentage, max or range

1LFNHl Ni

&KURPLXm

Cr

0RO\EGHQXm

Mo

Note

Martensitic Stainless Steels:

F6a

S41000

0.15

1.00

0.040

0.030

1.00

0.50

11.5-13.5

F6b

S41026

0.15

1.00

0.02

0.02

1.0

1.0-2.0

11.5-13.5

0.40-0.60

1

F6NM

S41500

0.05

0.50-1.00

0.030

0.030

0.60

3.5-5.5

11.5-14.0

0.5-1.0

Ferritic Stainless Steels:

FXM-27Cb

S44627

0.01

0.40

0.020

0.020

0.40

0.50

25.0-27.5

0.75-1.50

2

F429

S42900

0.12

1.00

0.040

0.030

0.75

0.50

14.0-16.0

F430

S43000

0.12

1.00

0.040

0.030

0.75

0.50

16.0-18.0

Austenitic Stainless Steels:

F304

S30400

0.08

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

8.0-11.0

18.0-20.0

19

F304H

S30409

0.04-

0.10

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

8.0-11.0

18.0-20.0

F304L

S30403

0.035

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

8.0-13.0

18.0-20.0

19

F304N

S30451

0.08

2.00

0.045

0.030

0.75

8.0-10.5

18.0-20.0

20

F304LN

S30453

0.030

2.00

0.045

0.030

0.75

8.0-10.5

18.0-20.0

20

F310

S31000

0.15

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

19.0-22.0

24.0-26.0

F316

S31600

0.08

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

10.0-14.0

16.0-18.0

2.00-3.00

19

F316H

S31609

0.04-

0.10

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

10.0-14.0

16.0-18.0

2.00-3.00

F316L

S31603

0.035

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

10.0-15.0

16.0-18.0

2.00-3.00

19

F316N

S31651

0.08

2.00

0.045

0.030

0.75

11.0-14.0

16.0-18.0

2.00-3.00

20

F316LN

S31653

0.030

2.00

0.045

0.030

0.75

11.0-14.0

16.0-18.0

2.00-3.00

20

F317

S31700

0.08

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

11.0-15.0

18.0-20.0

3.0-4.0

F317L

S31703

0.03

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

11.0-15.0

18.0-20.0

3.0-4.0

F321

S32100

0.080

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

9.0-12.0

17.0

21

F321H

S32109

0.04-

0.10

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

9.0-12.0

17.0

22

F347

S34700

0.08

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

9.0-13.0

17.0-20.0

23

F347H

S34709

0.04-

0.10

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

9.0-13.0

17.0-20.0

24

F348

S34800

0.08

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

9.0-13.0

17.0-20.0

3,23

F348H

S34809

0.04-

0.10

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

9.0-13.0

17.0-20.0

3,24

FXM-11

S21904

0.040

8.0-10.0

0.060

0.030

1.00

5.5-7.5

19.0-21.5

4

FXM-19

S20910

0.06

4.0-6.0

0.040

0.030

1.00

11.5-13.5

20.5-23.5

1.50-3.00

5

F10

S33100

0.10-

0.20

0.50-0.80

0.040

0.030

1.00-1.40

19.0-22.0

7.0-9.0

F44

S31254

0.020

1.00

0.030

0.010

0.80

17.5-18.5

19.5-20.5

6.0-6.5

6

F45

S30815

0.05-

0.10

0.80

0.040

0.030

1.40-2.00

10.0-12.0

20.0-22.0

7

F46

S30600

0.018

2.00

0.020

0.020

3.7-4.3

14.0-15.5

17.0-18.5

0.20

F47

S31725

0.030

2.00

0.045

0.030

0.75

13.0-17.5

18.0-20.0

4.0-5.0

8

F48

S31726

0.030

2.00

0.045

0.030

0.75

13.5-17.5

17.0-20.0

4.0-5.0

9

F49

S34565

0.030

5.0-7.0

0.030

0.010

1.00

16.0-18.0

23.0-25.0

4.0-5.0

10

F56

S33228

0.04-

0.08

1.00

0.020

0.015

0.30

31.0-33.0

26.0-28.0

11

Duplex Stainless Steels

F50

S31200

0.030

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.00

5.5-6.5

24.0-26.0

1.2-2.0

12

F51

S31803

0.030

2.00

0.030

0.020

1.00

4.5-6.5

21.0-23.0

2.5-3.5

13

F52

S32950

0.03

2.00

0.035

0.010

0.60

3.5-5.2

26.0-29.0

1.00-2.50

14

F53

S32750

0.030

1.2

0.035

0.020

0.8

6.0-8.0

24.0-26.0

3.0-5.0

15

F54

S39274

0.030

1.0

0.030

0.020

0.80

6.0-8.0

24.0-26.0

2.50-3.50

16

F55

S32760

0.030

1.00

0.030

0.010

1.00

6.00-8.00

24.00-

26.00

3.00-4.00

17

F57

S39277

0.025

0.80

0.025

0.002

0.80

6.5-8.0

24.0-26.0

3.0-4.0

18

  Product Analysis TolerancesA

  (% over max or under min)

0.005 if

<0.030,

0.01 if

<0.20

    1. if

    2. if

    3. if

    4. if

<1.00,

<3.00,

<6.00,

<10.00

0.005

0.005

0.05 if

<1.00,

0.10 if

<5.00

0.03 if

<1.00,

0.07 if

<5.00,

0.10 if

<10.00,

0.15 if

<20.00,

0.20 if

<22.00

0.10 if

<10.00,

0.15 if

<15.00,

0.20 if <20,

0.25 if

<27.50

0.03 if

<0.60,

0.05 if

<2.00,

0.10 if

<7.00

25

Note

A The product analysis tolerances are not applicable to heat analysis.

Composition Notes

  1. Copper 0.50% max

  2. Nitrogen 0.015% max, Copper 0.20% max, Niobium 0.05-0.20%

  3. Tantalum 0.10% max

4 Nitrogen 0.15-0.40%

5 Niobium+Tantalum: 0.10-0.30%, Nitrogen 0.20-0.40%, Vanadium 0.10-0.30%

6 Nitrogen 0.18-0.22%, Copper 0.50-1.00%

7 Nitrogen 0.14-0.20%, Cerium 0.03-0.08%

8 Nitrogen 0.10% max

9 Nitrogen 0.10-0.20%

  1. Niobium+Tantalum: 0.10% max, Nitrogen 0.4-0.6%

  2. Niobium+Tantalum: 0.6-1.0%, Cerium 0.05-0.10%, Aluminium 0.025% max

12 Nitrogen 0.14-0.20%

13 Nitrogen 0.08-0.20%

14 Nitrogen 0.15-0.35%

15 Nitrogen 0.24-0.32%, Copper 0.5% max

16 Nitrogen 0.24-0.32%, Copper 0.20-0.80%, Tungsten 1.50-2.50%

17 Nitrogen 0.20-0.30%, Copper 0.50-1.00%, Tungsten 0.50-1.00%

18 Nitrogen 0.23-0.33%, Copper 1.20-2.00%, Tungsten 0.80-1.20%

19 Nitrogen 0.10% max

20 Nitrogen 0.10-0.16%

  1. Titanium >5 x Carbon and Ti <0.70%

  2. Titanium >4 x Carbon and Ti <0.70%

  3. Niobium + Tantalum >10 times Carbon and 1.10% max 24 Niobium + Tantalum >8 times Carbon and 1.10% max

25 Tolerances (% over max or under min) for other elements are as follows:

0.05 for Titanium

0.03 for Copper if <1.00%

    1. for Nitrogen if <0.19%

    2. for Nitrogen if <0.25%

    3. for Nitrogen if <0.35%

    4. for Nitrogen if <0.45%

    5. for Nitrogen if <0.60%

0.01 for Niobium if in range 0.05-0.20%

0.05 for Niobium+Tantalum in all ranges

0.02 for Tantalum if <0.10%

0.04 for Tungsten if <1.00%

Note

– Niobium is sometimes referred to as Columbium.

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