Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel

– Austenitic

304, 1.4301, X5CrNi18-10

304H, S30415, 1.4948, S30409

304L, 1.4306, S30403, 1.4307

316L, 1.4401, 1.4404, 1.4435

316Ti, S31615, 1.4571, S31635

321,321H, 1.4541

904L, 1.4539, N080904

309/309S/309H, 1.4833

310/310S/310H,1.4845

347/347H,1.4550,1.4961

317,317L,1.4449,1.4438

– Duplex Steel

S32101, 1.4162 S32205, S31803, 1.4462 S32304, 1.4362, UNS S32304 S32750,1.4410, 2507, F53 S32760, 1.4501

– Nickel Alloy Steel

Alloy 800H, 800HT, UNSN08810&NO8811 Alloy 800, UNS N08800 Alloy 825, UNSN08825, 2.4858 Alloy 600, UNSN06600 Alloy 601, UNSN06601 Alloy 625, UNSN06625
Alloy 718, UNS N07718 Alloy 400, UNS NO4400 Alloy K-500, UNS NO5500254 254SMO,S31254,1.4547 Alloy C-276,UNSN10276,2.4819 Alloy B, UNS N1001

Alloy B-2, UNS N10665

Alloy B-3, UNS N10675 Alloy C-4, UNS N06455 Alloy C22, UNS N06022 Alloy C-2000, UNS N06200 Alloy G-35, UNS N06035
Alloy S, UNS N06635 Alloy 230, UNS N06230 Alloy X750, UNS N07750 Alloy 617, UNS N06617 Alloy 925, UNS N09925 UNS N02201, UNS N02200


AISI 304 ,SUS 304,TP 304 ,S30400,1.4301,X5CrNi18-10,S30400

Stainless steel types 1.4301 and 1.4307 are also known as grades 304 and 304L respectively. Type 304 is the most versatile and widely used stainless steel. It is still sometimes referred to by its old name 18/8 which is derived from the nominal composition of type 304 being 18% chromium and 8% nickel.

304 stainless steel bar, also known as UNS S30403 and Grade 304, is the low carbon content version of Type 304 generally preferred because it is the “free machining” version. Grade 304 exhibits good combination of strength and corrosion resistance making it ideal for almost all industries. Cold working will increase both the hardness and strength, and it does not respond to heat treatment.

The stainless austenitic chromium-nickel steel 1.4301 shows good corrosion resistance (particularly in natural environmental media and in the absence of considerable chlorine and salt concentrations and sea water) and weldability. Application with acids have to be checked individually. However, after welding 1.4301 is not stable to intergranular corrosion. Good polishing and deep drawing property. It is used in the crude oil industry, chemical industry, petrochemical industry, automobile industry 
Chemical Composition %

 

C

Mn

P

S

Si

Ni

Cr

Mo

Ti

N

Nb

TP304

0.08

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.0

8-10.5

18-20

 

 

 

 

SUS304

0.08

2.00

0.040

0.030

1.0

8-10.5

18-20

 

 

 

 

1.4301

0.07

2.00

0.040

0.015

1.0

8-10.5

17-19.5

 

 

0.11

 

Mechanical propertoes

 

Tensile strength(Mpa)

Yield point(Mpa)

Elongation(%)

Longitudinal

Elongation(%)

transverse

TP304

515

205

35

25

SUS304

520

205

35

25

1.4301

500-700

195

40

35

304H, S30415, 1.4948, S30409

TP304H,S30409,S30415, 1.4948, S30409

1.4948 forging, sheet, coil, and profiledstrip, Deformed steel, flat steel, mould, steel wire, have all specifications. With DuoNian production experience, strict control 1.4948 chemical composition and 1.4948 mechanical properties. From casting, forging, steel to hot and cold rolling process, heat treatment, etc, we have the control of professional engineers. We have advanced precision machining equipment, according to the requirements of users machining. in order to achieve the most satisfied with the user requirements.

Chemical Composition %

 

C

Mn

P

S

Si

Ni

Cr

Mo

Ti

N

Ce

TP304H

0.04-0.1

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.0

8-11

18-20

 

 

 

 

S30415

0.04-0.6

0.80

0.045

0.030

1-2

9-10

18-19

 

 

0.12-0.18

0.03-0.08

1.4948

0.04-0.08

2.00

0.035

0.015

0.75

10-12

17-19

 

 

0.11

 

Mechanical propertoes

 

Tensile strength(Mpa)

Yield point(Mpa)

Elongation(%)

Longitudinal

Elongation(%)

transverse

TP304H

515

205

35

25

S30415

600

290

35

25

1.4948

500-700

185

40

30

304L, 1.4306, S30403, 1.4307

AISI 304L, 1.4306, TP304L,S30403, 1.4307, S30400

1.4306 is essentially a more highly alloyed version of 1.4307. Due to the slightly higher chromium and notably higher nickel content, 1.4306 is more corrosion resistant than 1.4307. Despite its improved corrosion resistance, 1.4306 finds itself in a diminishing market as far as profiles is concerned. A possible reason for this could be that most profiles are subjected to further processing by machining and to date no NIRO-CUT® version exists. Most customers thus specify either 1.4307 or 1.4404, when improved corrosion resistance is required.

Stainless steel types1.4301 and 1.4307 are also known as grades 304 and 304L respectively. Type 304 is the most versatile and widely used stainless steel. It is still sometimes referred to by its old name 18/8 which is derived from the nominal composition of type 304 being 18% chromium and 8% nickel.

Chemical Composition %

 

C

Mn

P

S

Si

Ni

Cr

Mo

Ti

N

Nb

TP304L

0.035

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.0

8-13

18-20

 

 

 

 

1.4306

0.030

0.80

0.040

0.015

1.0

10-12

18-19

 

 

0.11

 

1.4307

0.030

0.80

0.040

0.015

1.0

8-10

17.5-19.5

 

 

0.11

 

Mechanical propertoes

 

Tensile strength(Mpa)

Yield point(Mpa)

Elongation(%)

Longitudinal

Elongation(%)

transverse

TP304L

485

170

35

25

1.4306

480-680

180

40

35

1.4307

480-680

180

40

35

316L, 1.4401, 1.4404, 1.4435

AISI 316L,S31600, 1.4401,1.4404,S31603,1.4435,TP316L

Stainless steels are iron based alloys containing at least 10.5% Chromium. They achieve their stainless characteristics through the formation of an invisible and adherent Chromium rich oxide film. Alloy 316 is a general purpose austenitic stainless steel with a face centered cubic structure. It is essentially non-magnetic in the annealed condition and can only be hardened by cold working. 

The stainless austenitic steel 1.4401 is mainly used in the chemical industry, apparatus engineering, pulp industry, food industry.

The austenitic stainless steel 1.4404 (316L) shows good acid resistance. Material 1.4404 (316L) is used in the chemical industry, apparatus engineering, sewage plants, and paper industry.

The stainless austenictic steel 1.4435 is mainly used in the pulp industry and textile industry.

Chemical Composition %

 

C

Mn

P

S

Si

Ni

Cr

Mo

Ti

N

Nb

316L

0.035

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.0

10-14

16-18

2-3

 

 

 

1.4401

0.07

2.00

0.040

0.015

1.0

10-13

16.5-18.5

2-2.5

 

0.11

 

1.4404

0.03

2.00

0.040

0.015

1.0

10-13

16.5-18.5

2-2.5

 

0.11

 

1.4435

0.03

2.00

0.040

0.015

1.0

12.5-15

17-19

2.5-3

 

0.11

 

316

0.08

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.0

11-14

16-18

2-3

 

 

 

Mechanical propertoes

 

Tensile strength(Mpa)

Yield point(Mpa)

Elongation(%)

Longitudinal

Elongation(%)

transverse

316L

485

170

35

25

1.4401

510-710

205

40

30

1.4404

190

490-690

40

30

1.4435

190

490-690

40

30

316

515

205

35

25

316Ti, S31615, 1.4571, S31635

AISI 316Ti, S31615, 1.4571, S31635, TP316Ti

Titanium allows you to enhance the material resistance to aggressive environments. Therefore, the main area of application of this steel grade is the production of equipment for various industries, which will be operated in adverse conditions. Stainless steel AISI 316 has excellent properties for forming and welding characteristics of the good.

The stainless austenitic steel 1.4571 is mainly used in the chemical industry, textile industry, cellulose industry.

Chemical Composition %

 

C

Mn

P

S

Si

Ni

Cr

Mo

Ti

N

Nb

316Ti

0.080

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.0

10-14

16-18

2-3

0.7>5X(C+N)

 

 

1.4571

0.07

2.00

0.040

0.015

1.0

10-13

16.5-18.5

2-2.5

 

0.11

 

Mechanical propertoes

 

Tensile strength(Mpa)

Yield point(Mpa)

Elongation(%)

Longitudinal

Elongation(%)

transverse

316Ti

500-700

210

35

30

1.4571

500-700

210

35

30

321,321H, 1.4541

TP321, S32100, 321H, S32109, 1.4541, AISI321

Stainless Steel 321 is a basic austenitic 18/8 steel (Grade 304) stabilised by Titanium (321) addition. SS 321 is used because they are not sensitive to intergranular corrosion after heating within the carbide precipitation range of 425-850°C. SS 321 is the grade of choice for applications in the temperature range of up to about 900°C, combining high strength, resistance to scaling and phase stability with resistance to subsequent aqueous corrosion.

The key feature of 321 stainless is its resistance to intergranular corrosion. It employs titanium as a stabilizing element against chromium carbide formation. This alloy also exhibits strength characteristics superior to those of 304 stainless.

Chemical Composition %

 

C

Mn

P

S

Si

Ni

Cr

Mo

Ti

N

Nb

321

0.080

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.0

9-12

17-19

 

0.7>5XC

 

 

321H

0.04-0.10

2.00

0.045

0.030

1.0

9-12

17-19

 

0.7>5XC

 

 

1.4541

0.080

2.00

0.040

0.015

1.0

9-12

17-19

 

0.7>5XC

 

 

Mechanical propertoes

 

Tensile strength(Mpa)

Yield point(Mpa)

Elongation(%)

Longitudinal

Elongation(%)

transverse

321

515

205

35

30

321H

515

205

35

30

1.4541

500-700

200

35

30

904L, 1.4539, N080904

904L (1.4539)

Summary

1.4539 (alloy 904L) is an austenitic special steel with high molybdenum content as well as addition of copper and extremely low carbon content.

Standard Product Forms

 

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

23

28

Cu

1.0

2.0

C

 

0.02

Cr

19

23

Co

 

 

Si

 

1.0

Fe

 

 

Al

 

 

P

 

0.04

Mo

4

5

Ti

 

 

S

 

0.03

W

 

 

Mn

 

2.0

N

 

 

Physical

Constants

Density,g/page 904L201.4539N080904 wps clip image 9985 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel 8.24

Melting Range,℃

Typical Mechanical Properties

Elastic

Modulus

(Gpa)

200

Mean Co-eff of Thermal

Expansion (μm/m/℃)

0-100℃

15

0-315℃

 

0-538℃

 

Thermal Conductivity

(W/m.k)

At 20℃

13

At 500℃

 

Specific Heat

0-100 ℃

(J/Kg.K)

500

Elec Resistivity

(nΩ.m)

850

Tensile Strength (Mpa) min

490

Yield Stregth 0.2%

Proof (Mpa) min

220

Elongation (% in 50 MM)

min

35

309/309S/309H, 1.4833

SX 309 Technical Data

SX 309 is a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel used for its excellent oxidation resistance, high temperature strength and creep resistance.  The lower nickel content of SX309 improves resistance to sulphur attack at high temperatures.  It is tough and ductile, and can be readily fabricated and machined.  SX 309S is the low-carbon version of SX 309, and is recommended for applications where sensitisation, and subsequent corrosion by high temperature gases or condensates during shutdown may pose a problem. 

Typical Applications 
SX 309 / 309S is used exclusively for its high temperature oxidation resistance.  It is common for SX 309, 310 and 321 to be used in the same piece of equipment in the various temperature regions.

SX

C

Mn

P

S

Si

Cr

Ni

309 
309S

0.20 max 
0.08 max

2.00 
max

0.045 
max

0.030 
max

1.00 
max

22.0 – 
24.0

12.0 – 
15.0

SX

C

Mn

P

S

Si

Cr

Ni         N

1.4833 

0.15max

2.00 
max

0.045 
max

0.015 
max

1.00 
max

22.0 – 
24.0

12.0 –  0.11  
15.0    max     

Typical Properties in the Annealed Condition 
The properties quoted in this publication are typical of mill production and unless indicated should not be regarded as guaranteed minimum values for specification purposes.

 Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature 
  Tensile Stength                                    MPa     min515

    Proof Stress (0.2% Offset)                    MPa     min205

    Elongation  (Percent in 50 mm)            longitudinal  35%       transverse  25%

310/310S/310H,1.4845

SX 310 Technical Data

SX 310 is a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel used for high-temperature applications.  The high chromium and nickel contents give the steel excellent oxidation resistance as well as high strength at high temperatures.  This grade is also very ductile, and has good weldability enabling its widespread usage in many applications. 
SX 310S is the low carbon version of SX 310 and is suggested for applications where sensitisation, and subsequent corrosion by high temperature gases or condensates during shutdown may pose a  problem.

Typical Applications

SX 310/310S find wide application in all high-temperature environments where scaling and corrosion resistance, as well as high temperature strength and good creep resistance, are required.

Grade

310S

           310H

UNS Designation

S31008

S31009

Carbon (C) Max.

0.08

0.04– 0.10

Manganese (Mn) Max.

2.00

2.00

Phosphorous (P) Max.

0.045

0.045

Sulphur (S) Max.

0.030

0.030

Silicon (Si) Max.

1.00

1.00

Chromium (Cr)

24.0–26.0

24.0–26.0

Nickel (Ni)

19.0–22.0

19.0–22.0

Molybdenum (Mo)

Nitrogen (N)

Iron (Fe)

Bal.

Bal.

Other Elements

 Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature 

  Tensile Stength                                    MPa     min515

    Proof Stress (0.2% Offset)                    MPa     min205

    Elongation  (Percent in 50 mm)            longitudinal  35%       transverse  25%

347/347H,1.4550,1.4961

 347/347H,UNS S34700, S34709,1.4550,1.4961

Stainless Steel 347 UNS S34700 is advantageous for high temperature service because of its good mechanical properties . SS 347 also has excellent resistance to intergranular corrosion following exposure to temperatures in the chromium carbide precipitation range from 800° to 1500° F. SS 347 is similar to SS 321 with respect to intergranular corrosion which is achieved through the use of columbium as a stabilizing element to maximize this feature. SS 347 can not be hardened through heat treating, but elevated properties may be obtained through cold reduction. SS 347H is a modification of SS 347 with a higher carbon content, to provide improved high temperature strength.

Composition of 347/347H tubing and pipe

Grade

347

347H

UNS Designation

S34700

S34709

Carbon (C) Max.

0.08

0.04–0.10

Manganese (Mn) Max.

2.00

2.00

Phosphorous (P) Max.

0.04

0.04

Sulphur (S) Max.

0.03

0.03

Silicon (Si) Max.

0.75

0.75

Chromium (Cr)

17.0–20.0

17.0–20.0

Nickel (Ni)

9.0–13.0

9.0–13.0

Molybdenum (Mo)

Nitrogen (N)

Iron (Fe)

Bal.

Bal.

Other Elements

Cb+Ta=10xC-1.0

Cb+Ta=8xC-1.0

Specifications

Stainless Steel SS 347 / 347H

AISI

347 / 347H

UNS

S34700 / S34709

Werkstoff Nr.

1.4550 / 1.4961

Mechanical & Physical Properties

Density

8.0 g/cm3

Melting Point

1454 °C (2650 °F)

Tensile Strength

Psi – 75000 , MPa – 515

Yield Strength (0.2%Offset)

Psi – 30000 , MPa – 205

Elongation

35 %

317,317L,1.4449,1.4438

317,317L,UNS S31700,S31703,1.4449,1.4438

Stainless Steel SS 317 / 317L

AISI

317 / 317L

UNS

S31700 / S31703

Werkstoff Nr.

1.4449 / 1.4438

Mechanical & Physical Properties

Density

8.0 g/cm3

Melting Point

1454 °C (2650 °F)

Tensile Strength

Psi – 75000 , MPa – 515

Yield Strength (0.2%Offset)

Psi – 30000 , MPa – 205

Elongation

35 %

 Composition

Grade

317

317L

UNS Designation

S31700

S31703

Carbon (C) Max.

0.08

0.035*

Manganese (Mn) Max.

2.00

2.00

Phosphorous (P) Max.

0.040

0.04

Sulphur (S) Max.

0.03

0.03

Silicon (Si) Max.

1.00

1.00

Chromium (Cr)

18.0–20.0

18.0–20.0

Nickel (Ni)

11.0–14.0

11.0–15.0

Molybdenum (Mo)

3.0–4.0

3.0–4.0

Nitrogen (N)

Iron (Fe)

Bal.

Bal.

Other Elements

S32101, 1.4162

S32101 (1.4162)

Summary

Duplex stainless steels are extremely corrosion resistant, work hardenable alloys. Their microstructures consist of a mixture of austenite and ferrite phases. As a result, duplex stainless steels display properties characteristic of both austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. This combination of properties can mean some compromise when compared with pure austenitic and pure ferritic grades.

Standard Product Forms

 

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

1.35

1.7

Cu

0.1

0.8

C

 

0.04

Cr

21

22

Co

 

 

Si

 

1.0

Fe

 

 

Al

 

 

P

 

0.04

Mo

0.1

0.8

Ti

 

 

S

 

0.03

W

 

 

Mn

4

6

N

0.2

0.25

Physical

Constants

Density,g/page S321011.4162 wps clip image 23400 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel

Melting Range,℃

Mechanical Properties

Specified Tensile Properties ASTM A240

Cold Rolled Plate and Sheet > 1/4”

Alloy

Ultimate Tensile

Strength, ksi

Minimum

2% Yield

Strength, ksi Minimum

Elongation %

Minimum

Hardness Brinell

Maximum

2101

94

65

30

290

304/304L

75

30

40

201

316/316L

75

30

40

217

2205

95

65

25

293

S32205, S31803, 1.4462

 

S32205、S31803(1.4462)

Summary

Alloy S32205 S31803 is a 22% chromium, 3% molybdenum, 5-6% nickel, nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel with high general, localized, and stress corrosion resistance properties in addition to high strength and excellent impact toughness.
Alloy S32205 S31803 provides pitting and crevice corrosion resistance superior to 316L or 317L austenitic stainless steel in almost all corrosive media. It also has high corrosion and erosion fatigue properties as well as lower thermal expansion and higher thermal conductivity than austenitic. The advantage of a duplex structure is that it combines the favorable qualities of a ferritic alloy stress corrosion cracking resistance and high strength with austenitic alloy ease of fabrication and corrosion resistance.
Duplex S32205 S31803 is a nitrogen enhanced duplex stainless steel that was developed to combat common corrosion problems encountered with the 300 series stainless steel. “Duplex” describes a family of stainless steel that are neither fully austenitic, like 304 stainless, nor purely ferritic, like 430 stainless steel. The structure of 2205 duplex stainless steel consists of austenitic pools surrounded by a continuous ferritic phase. In the annealing condition, 2205 contains approximately 40-50% ferrite. Ofen referred to as the work horse grade, 2205 is the most widely used grade in the duplex stainless steel tube.

Products

 

omposition Wt,%

S32205 Composition % according to ASTM A789 ASTM A790

 

C

Si

Mn

P

S

Cr

Mo

Ni

N

Cu

Min

 

 

 

 

 

22.00

3.00

4.50

0.14

 

Max

0.03

1.00

2.00

0.030

0.020

23.00

3.50

6.50

0.20

 

S31803 Composition % according to ASTM A789 ASTM A790

 

C

Si

Mn

P

S

Cr

Mo

Ni

N

Cu

Min

 

 

 

 

 

21.00

2.50

4.50

0.08

 

Max

0.03

1.00

2.00

0.030

0.020

23.00

3.50

6.50

0.20

 

UNS

Psi

Mpa

Ksi

S32205

95000

655

95

S31803

90000

620

95

UNS

Psi

Mpa

Ksi

Elongation

in 2 in

(min.)%

Max.

Hardness

Modulus of Elasticity

(x 106 psi)

Mean

Coefficient

of Thermal

Expansion

(IN_/IN_/℉ x10-6)

 

S32205

70000

485

70

30

28Rc

30*Rc

27.5

7.6

S31803

90000

450

70

30

28Rc

30*Rc

27.5

7.6

S32304, 1.4362, UNS S32304

 

S32304 (1.4362)

Summary

Alloy 2304 (UNS S32304) is a 23% chromium, 4% nickel, molybdenum-free duplex stainless steel. The Alloy 2304 has corrosion resistance properties similar to 316L. Furthermore, its mechanical properties, i.e., yield strength, are twice those of 304L/316L austenitic grades. This allows the designer to save weight, particularly for properly designed pressure vessel applications.
UNS S32304, is a lean duplex steel, similar to other duplex steels with it’s high strength and resistance to chlorides stress corrosion cracking however, due to its lower alloying content it has a lower level of pitting and crevice corrosion resistance (PREN approximately 26). As it contains very little Molybdenum, 2304 is a good economical alternative to 316L in some applications although 2304 is not recommended for use above 300℃. Also knows by the Uranus 35N and SAF2304.
The alloy is particularly suitable for application covering the -50℃/+300℃(-58℉
/572℉) temperature range. Lower temperatures may also be considered, but need some restrictions particularly for welded structures. With its duplex microstructure, low nickel and high chromium contents, the alloy has improved stress corrosion resistance properties compared to 304 and 316 austenitic grades.

Products

 

omposition Wt,%

1.4362 Composition % according to EN-10216-5

 

C

Si

Mn

P

S

Cr

Mo

Ni

N

Cu

Min

 

 

 

 

 

22.00

0.10

3.50

0.05

0.10

Max

0.03

1.00

2.00

0.035

0.015

24.00

0.60

5.50

0.20

0.60

S32304 Composition % according to ASTM A789,ASTM A790

 

C

Si

Mn

P

S

Cr

Mo

Ni

N

Cu

Min

 

 

 

 

 

21.50

0.50

3.00

0.05

0.50

Max

0.03

1.00

2.50

0.040

0.040

24.50

0.60

5.50

0.20

0.60

Solution annealing:950-1050℃

Density:7800kg/M³

Hardness Brinell 290 Max

Tensile Strength @ Break 600 Mpa/87000psi Min

Tensile Strength @ Yield 400 Mpa/58000psi 0.2% offsett

Elongation of Elasticity in tension 200Gpa 28500 ksi

S32750,1.4410, 2507, F53

S32750 (1.4410)

Summary

Stainless steel S32750(Alloy2507, F53, DIN 1.4410) is a super duplex stainless steel with 25% chromium, 4% molybdenum, and 7% nickel. The high chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen levels provide excellent resistance to pitting, crevice and general corrosion. This material has excellent resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking, high thermal conductivity and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, further, the impact strength is also high

Standard Product Forms

 

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

6

8

Cu

 

0.5

C

 

0.03

Cr

24

26

Co

 

 

Si

 

0.8

Fe

 

 

Al

 

 

P

 

0.035

Mo

3

5

Ti

 

 

S

 

0.020

W

 

 

Mn

 

2.0

N

0.24

0.32

Tensile

Strength

Psi

Mpa

Ksi

116000

800

116

Yield Strength

Psi

Mpa

Ksi

Elongation

in 2 in

(min.)%

Max.

Hardness

Modulusof Elasticity (x 106 psi)

Mean

Coefficient

of Thermal

Expansion

(IN_/IN_/℉ x10-6)

 

 

80000

550

80

15

32 Rc

27.5

7.2

S32760, 1.4501

S32760 (1.4501)

Summary

Grade 1.4501 is austenitic-ferritic also referred to as super duplex stainless steel, combine many of the beneficial properties of ferritic and austenitic steels. It offers enhanced pitting and crevice corrosion resistance in environments, where standard stainless and duplex steels are unsuitable. The duplex microstructure contributes higher strength and resistance to stress corrosion cracking, combined with good weldability features.

Standard Product Forms

 

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

6

8

Cu

0.5

1.0

C

 

0.03

Cr

24

26

Co

 

 

Si

 

1.0

Fe

 

 

Al

 

 

P

 

0.035

Mo

3

4

Ti

 

 

S

 

0.015

W

0.5

1.0

Mn

 

1.0

N

 

 

Physical

Constants

Density,g/page S321011.4162 wps clip image 23400 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel

Melting Range,℃

Typical Mechanical Properties

Tensile (UTS)

730-930N/mm²

0.2% Proof Stress

530 N/mm²Min

Elongation

25% min

Hardness

290HB Max

Impact

100J

Alloy 800H, 800HT, UNSN08810&NO8811

Alloy 800H/800HT

Alloy 800H/800HT (UNS N08810&NO8811)

Summary

Nickel-iron-chromium alloys having the same basic composition as alloy 800 but with significantly higher creep-rupture strength. The higher strength results from close control of the carbon, aluminum, and titanium contents in conjunction with a high-temperature anneal. Used in chemical and petrochemical processing, in power plants for super-heater and reheater tubing, in industrial furnaces, and for heat-treating equipment.

Standard Product Forms

Pipe, tube, sheet, strip, plate, round bar, flat bar, forging stock, hexagon and wire.

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

30.0

35.0

Al800H

0.15

0.6

 

 

 

Cr

19.0

23.0

Al800HT

0.15

0.6

Al+Ti800HT

0.85

1.2

Fe

39.5

 

Ti800H

0.15

0.6

Si

 

1.0

C800H

0.05

0.1

Ti800HT

0.15

0.6

S

 

0.015

C800HT

0.06

0.1

Mn

 

1.5

Cu

 

0.75

Physical

Constants

Density, 7.94

Melting Range,℃ 357-1385

Typical Mechanical Properties

(Annealed)

(1000h) Rupture Strength (1000h) ksi Mpa

1200℉/650℃ 24 165

1300℉/705℃ 15 105

1400℉/760℃ 10 70

1600℉/870℃ 4.7 32

1800℉/980℃ 2 14

 Microstructure

Alloy 800H and 800HT, as the same to the Incoloy 800, are also sustenitic, solidsolution alloys. Titanium nitride, titanium carbides, and chromium carbides normally appear in the alloys’ microstruture.

Characters

Alloy 800H is characterized by:

Good creep-rupture properties at temperature above 600℃(1110℉) without loss of ductility during long-term use at temperatures below 700℃(℉), due to limitation of (Ti+Al) content to max. 0.7%;

Good resistance to reducing, oxidizing and nitriding atmospheres and to atmospheres which alternate between reducing and oxidizing conditions;

Metallurgical stability in long-term application at high temperature.

Alloy 800HT is characterized:

Excellent creep strength at temperature above 700℃. However, for application where frequent excursions to temperatures lower than 700℃ during service cannot be excluded or parts of the material are permanently exposed to a temperature below 700℃, the use of Incoloy 800H is recommended.

Good resistance to reducing, oxidizing and nitriding atmospheres and to atmospheres which alternate between reducing and oxidizing conditions;

Metallurgical stability in long-term application at high temperature.

Corrosion Resistance

Alloy 800, 800H and 800HT have the same nickel, chromium, and iron contents and generally display similar corrosion resistance. The high nickel and chromium contents of Incoloy 800H, 800HT and 800 ensure excellent resistance to oxidation. Compared to Alloy 800, the 800H and 800HT can be used at higher temperature and still have a good strength, the alloys are also very resistant to carburization, nitridation sulphur-bearing atmospheres at high temperature. Resistance to hydrogen is excellent for Incoloy 800H and 800HT.

Applications

Alloy 800H and Alloy 800HT for more than

1. Steam/hydrocarbon reforing for components such as: transfer piping, catalyst (in lowpressure processes) and quench-system piping;

2. Cracking tubes used in the production of acetic anhydride and ketene-high strength, resistance to carburization and to dry hydrogen chloride and chlorine;

3. Components, e.g. Heat exchangers, piping system etc., in coal conversion plants.

Alloy 800, UNS N08800

Incoloy 800

Alloy 800 (UNS N08800)

Summary

A nickel-chromium alloy with good strength and excellent resistance to oxidation and carburization in high-temperature atmospheres. It also resists corrosion by many aqueous environments. The alloy maintains a stable, austenitic structure during prolonged exposure to high temperatures. Used for process piping, heat exchangers, carburizing equipment, heatingelement sheathing, and nuclear steam-generator tubing.

Standard Product Forms

Pipe, tube, sheet, strip, plate, round bar, flat bar, forging stock, hexagon and wire.

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

30.0

35.0

Cu

 

0.75

C

 

0.1

Cr

19.0

23.0

Co

 

 

Si

 

1.0

Fe

39.5

 

Al

0.15

0.6

P

 

 

Mo

 

 

Ti

0.15

0.6

S

 

0.015

Nb

 

 

Mn

 

1.5

N

 

 

Physical

Constants

Density,g/page Incoloy20800UNS20N08800 wps clip image 11480 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel 7.94

Melting Range,℃ 1357-1385

Typical Mechanical Properties

(Annealed)

(1000h) Rupture Strength (1000h) ksi Mpa

1000℉/540℃ 48 360

1100℉/595℃ 32 160

1200℉/650℃ 21 50

1300℉/705℃ 11 18

page Incoloy20800UNS20N08800 wps clip image 5500 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel

 Microstructure

Alloy 800 is an austenitic, solid-solution alloy and has a face-cetered-cubic structure. Titanium nitrides, titanium carbides, and chromium carbides normally appear in the alloy’s microstructure.

Characters

Alloy 800H is characterized by:

Good creep-rupture properties at temperatures above 600℃(1110℃) without loss of ductility during long-term use at temperatures below 700℃(1290℉), due to limitation of (Ti+Al) content to max. 0.7%;

Good resistance to reducing, oxidizing and nitriding atmospheres and to atmospheres which alternate between reducing and oxidizing condition;

Metallurgical stability in long-term application at high temperatures.

Alloy 800HT is characterized by:

Excellent creep strength at temperature above 700℃. However, for application where frequent excursions lower than 700℃ during service cannot be excluded or parts of the material are permanently exposed to a temperature below 700℃, the use of Alloy 800H is recommended.

Good resistance to reducing, oxidizing and nitriding atmospheres and to atmospheres which alternate between reducing and oxidizing condition;

Metallurgical stability in long-term application at high temperatures.

Corrosion Resistance

Alloy 800, like many austenitic stainless steels, can be sensitized, or made susceptible to intergranular attack in some aggressive media, by exposure to the temperature range of 1000 to 1400℉(540-760℃).

Application

For services below 600℃ the use of soft annealed Incoloy 800 is suggested. Alloy 800 has aoolication in furnace components and equipment, petrochemical furnace cracker tubes, pigtails and headers, and sheathing for electrical heating elements.

Alloy 825, UNS N08825, 2.4858

Alloy 825 (UNS N08825)

Summary

A nickel-iron-chromium alloy with additions of molybdenum and copper. It has excellent resistance to both reducing and oxidizing acids, to stress-corrosion cracking, and to localized attack such as pitting and crevice corrosion. The alloy is especially resisitant to sulfuric and phosphoric acids. Used for chemical processing, pollution-control equipment, oil and gas well piping, nuclear fuel reprocessing, acid production, and pickling equipment.

Standard Product Forms

Pipe, tube, sheet, strip, plate, round bar, flat bar, forging stock, hexagon and wire.

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

38.0

46.0

Cu

1.5

3.0

C

 

0.05

Cr

19.5

23.5

Co

 

 

Si

 

0.5

Fe

22.0

 

Al

 

0.2

P

 

 

Mo

2.5

3.5

Ti

0.6

1.2

S

 

0.03

Nb

 

 

Mn

 

1.0

N

 

 

Physical

Constants

Density,g/page Incoloy2082520UNSN088252.4858 wps clip image 14383 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel 8.14

Melting Range,℃ 1370-1400

Typical Mechanical Properties

(Annealed)

Tensile Strength, ksi 100

Mpa 690

Yield Strength (0.2% Offset),ksi 45

Mpa 310

Elongation, % 45

page Incoloy2082520UNSN088252.4858 wps clip image 18086 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel

Microstructure

Incoloy 825 has a stable face-centered-cubic structure.

Characters

Good resistance to stress-corrosion cracking;

Satisfactory resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion;

Good resistance to oxidizing and non-oxidizing hot acids;

Good mechanical properties at both room and elevated temperature, up to approximately 550℃;

Approval for pressure vessels with wall temperatures up to 450℃.

Corrosion Resistance

Alloy 825 is a versatile general engineering alloy with resistance to corrosion in acids and alkalis such as sodium or potassium hydroxide, and acidic chloride solutions. The versatility of Alloy 825 is illustrated by its use nuclear fuel element dissolvers where o variety of corrosive media, e.g. Sulphuric and nitric acids and sodium hydroxide, are handled in the same equipment.

Applications

Alloy 825 is used in a wide variety of applications up to a temperature of approximately 550℃. The typical applications are:

1. Components such as heating coils, tanks, crates, baskets and chains in sulphuric acid picking plants;

2. Sea-water-cooled heat exchangers, offshore product piping systems; tubes and components in sour gas service ;

3. Heat exchangers, evaporators, scrubbers, dip pipes etc. In phosphoric acid production;

4. Air-cooled heat exchangers in petroleum refineries;

5. Food processing;

6. Chemical plant;

7. Combustion-resistant alloy for high pressure O2 applications.

Alloy 600, UNSN06600

Alloy 600 (UNS N06600)

Summary

A nickel-chromium alloy with good oxidation resistance at high temperatures and resistance to chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking, corrosion by high-purity water, and caustic corrosion. Used for furnace components, in chemical and food processing, in nuclear engineering, and for sparking electrodes.

Standard Product Forms

Pipe, tube, sheet, strip, plate, round bar, flat bar, forging stock, hexagon and wire.

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

72.0

 

Cu

 

0.5

C

 

0.15

Cr

14.0

17.0

Co

 

 

Si

 

0.5

Fe

6.0

10.0

Al

 

 

P

 

 

Mo

 

 

Ti

 

 

S

 

 

W

 

 

Mn

 

1.0

N

 

 

Physical

Constants

Density,g/page Inconel2060020UNSN06600 wps clip image 16082 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel 8.47

Melting Range,℃ 1354-1413

Typical Mechanical Properties

(Annealed)

Tensile Strength, ksi 95

Mpa 655

Yield Strength (0.2% Offset),ksi 45

Mpa 310

Elongation, % 40

page Inconel2060020UNSN06600 wps clip image 30226 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel

Microstructure

Alloy 600 has a face-centered cubic structure and is a stable, austenitic solid-solution alloy.

Characters

A good corrosion resistance to the media of reducing, oxidation and nitridation;

Virtual immunity to chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking even at elevated temperatures;

Very good resistance ti high-temperature corrosion in drychlorine and hydrogen chloride.

Corrosion Resistance

The composition of Alloy 600 enables it to resist a variety of corrosives. The chromium content of the alloy makes it superior to commercially pure nickel under oxidizing condition, and its high nickel content enables it to retain considerable resistance under reducing condition. The nickel content also provides excellent resistance to alkaline solutions.

The alloy has fair resistance to strongly oxidizing acid solution. However, the oxidizing effect of dissolved air alone is not sufficient to insure complete passivity and freedom from attack by air-saturated mineral acids and certain concentrated organic acids.

Applications

1. Pressurised-water-reactor steam-generator tube;

2. Heat exchangers for sodium hydroxide;

3. Component used in the manufacture of photographic materials and film processing;

4. Oxychlorinator internals in vinyl chloride production;

5. Strip for flight recorders.

Alloy 601, UNSN06601

Alloy 601 (UNS N06601)

Summary

A nickel-chromium alloy with an addition of aluminum for outstanding resistance to oxidation and other forms of high-temperature corrosion. It also has high mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. Used for industrial furnaces; heat treating equipment such as baskets, muffles, and retorts; petrochemical and other process equipment; and gas-turbine components.

Standard Product Forms

Pipe, tube, sheet, strip, plate, round bar, flat bar, forging stock, hexagon and wire.

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

58.0

63.0

Cu

 

1.0

C

 

0.1

Cr

21.0

25.0

Co

 

 

Si

 

0.5

Fe

Remainder

Al

1.0

1.7

P

 

 

Mo

 

 

Ti

 

 

S

 

0.015

W

 

 

Mn

 

1.0

N

 

 

Physical

Constants

Density,g/page Inconel20601UNSN06601 wps clip image 17463 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel 8.11

Melting Range,℃ 1360-1411

Typical Mechanical Properties

(Solution Annealed)

(1000h) Rupture Strength (1000h) ksi Mpa

1200℉/650℃ 28 195

1400℉/760℃ 9.1 63

1600℉/870℃ 4.3 30

1800℉/980℃ 2.1 14

2000℉/1095℃ 1 7

page Inconel20601UNSN06601 wps clip image 23077 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel

Microstructure

Alloy 601 is a face-centered-cubic, solid-solution alloy with a high degree of metallurgical stability.

Characters

Good resistance to carburizing condition;

Good mechanical properties at both room and elevated temperatures;

Alloy 601 has good resistance to stress-corrosion cracking and is specifically recommended for service above 550℃ because of higher creep-rupture properties, resulting from controlled carbon content and coarse grain size.

Corrosion Resistance

The substantial nickel and chromium contents of Alloy 601 in conjunction with its content of aluminum give the alloy superior resistance to high temperature corrosion mechanisms. Of particular signification is its resistance to oxidation at temperatures up to 1200℃. By virtue of its contents of chromium and aluminum, alloy 601 offers unique resistance to spalling under cyclic thermal conditions and good resistance to oxidation in sulfur atmosphere at high temperature.

Applications

Alloy 601 has found a wide variety of applications in industries as diverse as thermal and chemical processing, pollution control and power generation. Typical applications are:

1. Trays, baskets and fixtures for heat treatment plant;

2. Strand-annealing and radiant heater tubes, high-velocity gas burners, wire mesh belts in industrial furnaces;

3. Insulating cans in ammonia reformers and catalyst support grids in nitric acid production;

4. Combustion in exhaust gas systems;

5. Components of waste-gas detoxification systems;

6. Tube supports and ash-handing components;

7. Components of waste-gas detoxification systems;

8. Oxygen preheaters.

Alloy 625, UNS N06625

Alloy 625 (UNS N06625)

Summary

A nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with an addition of niobium that acts with the molybdenum to stiffen the alloy’s matrix and thereby provide high strength without a strengthening heat treatment. The alloy resists a wide range of severely corrosive environments and is especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. Used in chemical processing, aerospace and marine engineering, pollution-control equipment, and nuclear reactors.

Standard Product Forms

Pipe, tube, sheet, strip, plate, round bar, flat bar, forging stock, hexagon and wire.

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

58.0

 

Cu

 

 

C

 

0.1

Cr

20.0

23.0

Co

 

1.0

Si

 

0.5

Fe

 

5.0

Al

 

0.4

P

 

0.015

Mo

8.0

10

Ti

 

0.4

S

 

0.015

Nb

3.15

4.15

Mn

 

0.5

N

 

 

Physical

Constants

Density,g/page Inconel20625UNSN06625 wps clip image 18616 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel 8.44

Melting Range,℃ 1290-1350

Typical Mechanical Properties

(Solution Annealed)

(1000h) Rupture Strength (1000h) ksi Mpa

1200℉/650℃ 52 360

1400℉/760℃ 23 160

1600℉/870℃ 72 50

1800℉/980℃ 26 18

page Inconel20625UNSN06625 wps clip image 188 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel

Microstructure

Alloy 625 is a solid-solution matrix-stiffened face-centered-cubic alloy.

Characters

Due to its low carton content and stabilizing heat treatment, Inconel 625 show little tendency to sensitization even after 50 hour at temperatures in the range 650~450℃.

The alloy is supplied in the soft-annealed condition for applications involving wet corrosion (Alloy 625, grade 1), and is approved by TUV for pressure vessels in the temperature range -196 to 450℃.

For high-temperature applications, above approx. 600℃ ,where high strength and resistance to creep and rupture are required, a solution-annealed version (Alloy 625,grade 2) with a higher carbon content is normally employed and available on request in some products forms.

Outstanding resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion, and intergranular attack;

Almost complete freedom from chloride-induced stress-corrosion cracking;

Good resistance to mineral acids, such as nitric, phosphoric, sulphuric and hydrochloric acids;

Good resistance to alkalis and organic acids;

Good mechanical properties.

Corrosion Resistance

The high alloy content of  alloy 625 enable it to withstand a wide variety of severe corrosion environment. In mild environments such as the atmosphere, fresh and sea water, neutral salts, and alkaline media there is almost no attack. In more severe corrosion environment the combination of nickel and chromium provides resistance to oxidizing chemical, whereas the high nickel and molybdenum contents supply resistance to nonoxidizing against sensitization during welding, thereby preventing subsequent intergranular cracking. Also, the high nickel content provides from chloride ion-stress-corrosion cracking.

Applications

The soft-annealed version of Alloy 625 (grade 1) is preferred for applications in the chemical process industry, in marine engineering and in pollution control equipment for environment protection. Typical applications are:

1. Superphosphoric acid production equipment;

2. Nuclear wasts reprocessing equipment;

3. Sour gas production tubes;

4. Piping systems and sheathing of risers in oil exploration;

5. Offshore industry and marine equipment;

6. Flue gas scrubber and damper components;

7. Chimney linings.

For high-temperature application, up to approximately 1000℃, the solution-annealed version of Alloy 625 (grade 2) can be used in accordance to the ASME code for pressure vessels. Typical application are:

1. Components in waste gas system and waste gas cleaning plants exposed to higher temperatures;

2. Flare stacks in refineries and offshore platforms;

3. Recuperator and compensators;

4. Submarine diesel engine exhaust systems;

5. Superheater tubes in wastes incineration plants.

Alloy 718, UNS N07718

Alloy 718 (UNS N07718)

Summary

A precipitation-hardenable nickel-chromium alloy also containing significant amount of iron, niobium, and molybdenum along with lesser amounts of aluminum and titanium. It combines corrosion resistance and high strength with outstanding weldability including resistance to post weld cracking. The alloy has excellent creep-rupture strength at temperatures to 1300℉(700℃). Used in gas turbines, rocket motors, apacecraft, nuclear reactors, pumps, and tooling.

Standard Product Forms

Pipe, tube, sheet, strip, plate, round bar, flat bar, forging stock, hexagon and wire.

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

50.0

55.0

Cu

 

0.3

C

 

0.08

Cr

17.0

21.0

Co

 

1.0

Si

 

0.35

Fe

Remainder

Al

0.2

0.8

P

 

0.015

Mo

2.8

3.3

Ti

0.65

1.15

S

 

0.015

Nb

4.75

5.5

Mn

 

0.35

N

 

0.006

Physical

Constants

Density,g/page Inconel20718UNS20N07718 wps clip image 19981 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel 8.19

Melting Range,℃ 1260-1336

Typical Mechanical Properties

(Solution Annealed)

(1000h) Rupture Strength (1000h) ksi Mpa

1100℉/595℃ 110 760

1200℉/650℃ 86 590

1300℉/705℃ 53 370

1400℉/760℃ 24 170

page Inconel20718UNS20N07718 wps clip image 3161 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel

Microstructure

Alloy 718 is an age-hardenable austenitic material. Strength is largely dependent on the precipit prime phase during heat treatment.

Characters

Good fabricability in the annealed condition;

Good tensile, fatigue and creep-rupture strengths; at up to 700℃;

High-temperature strength up to 700℃;

Good oxidation resistance up to 1000℃;

Excellent mechanical properties in cryogenic environments;

Good weldability by arc and without susceptibility to post-weld cracking.

Corrosion Resistance

Alloy 718 has excellent corrosion resistance to many media. This resistance, which is similar to that of other nickel-chromium alloys, is a function of its composition. Nickel contributes to corrosion resistance in many inorganic and organic, other than strongly oxidizing, compounds throughout wide ranges of acidity and alkalinity. It also is useful in combating chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking. Chromium imparts an ability to withstand attack by oxidizing media and sulfur compounds. Molybdenum is known to contribute to resistance to pitting in many media.

Applications

Due to its high-temperature strength up to 700℃, excellent corrosion resistance and ease of fabrication Inconel 718 finds applications in many field. Initially it was used as a turbine disk material in aircraft jet engines. Here resistance to creep and stress rupture eas most important. Because of its properties, fabricability and cost effectiveness it has since gained wider acceptance. Today applications vary from highly stressed rotating and static components in gas turbines and rocket engines to high-strength bolting, spring and fasteners, components in nuclear reactors and space vehicles as well as high-temperature tooling for extrusion, of for example copper, and shearing. Another more recent important application involves pump shafts and other highly stressed well head and downhole components in offshore Particularly useful is the alloy for drilling equipment in sour (containing H2S, CO2 and chlorides) oil and gas wells.

Alloy 400, UNS NO4400

Alloy 400 (UNS NO4400)

Summary

A nickel-copper alloy with high strength and excellent corrosion resistance in a range of media including sea water, hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, and alkalies. Used for marine engineering, chemical and hydrocarbon processing equipment, valves, pumps, shafts, fittings, fasteners, and heat exchangers.

Standard Product Forms

Pipe, tube, sheet, strip, plate, round bar, flat bar, forging stock, hexagon and wire.

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

63.0

 

Cu

28.0

34.0

C

 

0.3

Cr

 

 

Co

 

 

Si

 

0.5

Fe

 

2.5

Al

 

 

P

 

 

Mo

 

 

Ti

 

 

S

 

0.024

W

 

 

Mn

 

2.0

N

 

 

Physical

Constants

Density,g/page Monel20400UNS20NO4400 wps clip image 21035 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel 8.8

Melting Range,℃ 1300-1350

Typical Mechanical Properties

(Annealed)

Tensile Strength, ksi 80

Mpa 550

Yield Strength (0.2% Offset),ksi 35

Mpa 240

Elongation, % 40

page Monel20400UNS20NO4400 wps clip image 19927 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel

Microstructure

Alloy 400 is a solid-solution binary. As nickel and copper are mutually soluble in all proportions. It is a single-phase alloy. It has a face-centered cubic lattice structure with a lattice parameter of 3.534 A.

Characters

Alloy 400, with an excellent combination property, is a corrosion resistent alloy in a wide range of use and applications. It has an excellent corrosion resistance in the media of hydrofluoric acid and fluorine and also a good corrosion resistance to hot strong alkali liquor. Besides it also resistant to corrosion in the neutral solution, water, sea water, air, organic compound etc..One important character of the alloy is that the stress corrosion cracking normally doesn’t occur and it has a good machinability.

Corrosion Resistance

Alloy 400 exhibits resistance to corrosion by many reducing media. It is also generally to attack by oxidizing media than higher copper alloys. This versatility makes alloy 400 suitable for service in a variety of environment;

Alloy 400 is widely used in marine applications.While alloy 400 products exhibit very low corrosion rates in flowing seawater;

Stagnant conditions have been shown to induce crevice and pitting corrosion. Alloy 400 is a also resistant to stress corrosion cracking and pitting in most fresh and industrial water;

Alloy 400 offers exceptional resistance to hydrofluoric acid in all concentrations up to the boiling point;

It is perhaps the most resistant of all commonly used engineering alloys.Alloy 400 is also resistant to many forms of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids under reducing.

Applications

Monel 400 is a material in a variety of applications, and is applied in many industrial areas.tubing

1. Feed-water and steam generator in power plants;

2. Brine heaters and evaporator bodies in seawater desalination plants;

3. Pumps and values used in the manufacture of chlorinated hydrocarbons;

4. Cladding for crude oil distillation columns;

5. Splash-zone sheathing in offshore structures;

6. Plants for uranium refining and isotope separation in the production of nuclear fuel;

7.Propeller and pump shafts for seawater service.

Alloy K-500, UNS NO5500

Alloy K-500(UNS NO5500)

Summary

A precipitation-hardenable nickel-copper alloy that combines the corrosion resistance of alloy 400 with greater strength and hardness. It also has low permeability and is nonmagnetic to temperatures as lowas -101°. Used for pump shafts, oil-well tools and instruments, doctor blads and scrapers, springs, value rim, fasteners, and marine propeller shafts.

Standard Product Forms

Pipe, tube, sheet, strip, plate, round bar, flat bar, forging stock, hexagon and wire.

Chemical Composition Wt,%

 

Min

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Ni

63.0

 

Cu

27.0

33.0

C

 

0.18

Cr

 

 

Co

 

 

Si

 

0.5

Fe

 

2.0

Al

2.3

3.15

P

 

 

Mo

 

 

Ti

0.35

0.85

S

 

0.01

W

 

 

Mn

 

1.5

N

 

 

Physical

Constants

Density,g/page Monel20K 500UNS20NO5500 wps clip image 22211 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel 8.44

Melting Range,℃ 1315-1350

Typical Mechanical Properties

(Precipitation Hardened)

Tensile Strength, ksi 160

Mpa 1100

Yield Strength (0.2% Offset),ksi 115

Mpa 790

Elongation, % 20

page Monel20K 500UNS20NO5500 wps clip image 30910 - Austenitic/Duplex Steel/Nickel Alloy Steel

Microstructure

alloy K-500 which is produced by adding aluminum and titanium to the basic MONEL nickel-copper composition also has a face-centered cubic structure. In the age-hardened condition a submicroscopic gamma prime Ni3Al phase is formed throughout the matrix.

Characters

Alloy k500 has excellent corrosion resistance in an extensive range of natural and chemical environments, excellent resistance to chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking and very high strength and hardness.After age-hardening, Alloy K500 has approximately 2 to 3times higher mechanical properties than the nickel-copper alloy (Monel 400), high tensile properties up to about 650℃,good corrosion fatigue resistance and ow permeability with non-magnetic down to -135℃.

Corrosion Resistance

In general, the corrosion resistance of Alloy K500 is similar to that of Alloy 400. Excellent resistance is shown to a wide range of media from pure water to mineral acids, salts and alkalis. Alloy K500 is virtually immune to chloride-ionstress-corrosion cracking. In the aged condition, the alloy may be susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking in most, aerated hydrofluoric acid vapour at stresses near the yield strength. In high-velocity seawater and in marine atmospheres, good corrosion resistance is shown but, in slow-moving or stagnant seawater, pitting may occur. Nicorros Al also shows good resistance in sour-gas environment.

Applications

Alloy K500 finds wide application in the marine, chemical, petrochemical and shipbuilding industries.Typical applications include;

1. Valve seals, pump sleeves and wear rings in marine environments-high strength and resistance to seawater.

2. Doctor blads and scrapers;

3. Fasteners, e.g. Bolts, used in marine atmospheres and tidal waters – resistance to chloride-containing environments;

4. Towing cable armouring – high strength, non-magnetic properties and resistance to seawater;

5. Oil well drilling equipment such as non-magnetic drill collars, valves and instrumentation sleeves – resistance to chloride-containing nedia and sour-gas environments’

6. Springs – resistance to a variety of corrosive media;

7. Aviation instrument components – non-magnetic.

254SMO,S31254,1.4547

Chemical composition:

Alloy

%

Ni

Cr

Mo

Cu

N

C

Mn

Si

P

S

254SMO

Min.

17.5

19.5

6

0.5

0.18

 

 

 

 

 

Max.

18.5

20.5

6.5

1

0.22

0.02

1

0.8

0.03

0.01

254SMO Physical properties :

Density

8.0 g/cm3

Melting point

1320-1390 ℃

254SMO minimum mechanical properties in the room temperature:

Status

Tensile strength
Rm N Rm N/mm2

Yield strength 
RP0.2N/mm2

Elongation
A5 %

254 SMO

650

300

35

Characteristic:

The high concentration of molybdenum,chromium and nitrogen made 254SMO has very good resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion performance. Copper improved corrosion resistance in some of the acid . In addition, due to its high content of nickel,chromium and molybdenum, so that 254SMO have a good stress strength corrosion cracking performance.
1.A lot of a wide range use of experience has shown that even iin higher temperatures, 254SMO in the sea water is also highly resistant to corrosion performance gap, only a few types of stainless steel with this performance.
2.254SMO such as bleach paper required for the production of acidic solution and the solution halide oxidative corrosion resistance and corrosion resistance can be compared to the most resilient in the base alloy of nickel and titanium alloys.
3.254SMO due to a high nitrogen content, so its mechanical strength than other types of austenitic stainless steel is higher. In addition, 254SMO also highly scalable and impact strength and good weldability.
4.254SMO with high molybdenum content can make it higher rate of oxidation in the annealing , which after the acid cleaning with rough surface than normal stainless steel is more common than the rough surface. However,has not adversely affected for the corrosion resistance of this steel .

Metallurgical structure
254SMO is face-centered cubic lattice structure. In order to obtain austenitic structure, 254SMO general annealing in the 1150-1200℃.In some cases, the material maybe with the traces of metal middle phase (χ phase and α-phase). However,their impact strength and corrosion resistance are not adversely affected in normal circumstances. When placed in the range of 600-1000℃, they may phase in the grain boundary precipitation.

Corrosion resistance
254SMO with very low carbon content, which means that the danger by the heating caused of carbide precipitation is very small. Even in the 600-1000℃ after one hour sensitization still able to Strauss through the intergranular corrosion test (Strauss Test ASTMA262 order E).However, because of the high-alloy steel content. In the above-mentioned temperature range intermetallic phase with the possibility of metal in the grain boundary precipitation. These sediments do not make it occur intergranular corrosion in the corrosive media applications, then,welding can be carried out without intergranular corrosion.But in the heat of concentrated nitric acid, these sediments may be caused intergranular corrosion in heat-affected zone. If ordinary stainless steel in the solution that containing chloride, bromide or iodide,it will show pitting, crevice corrosion or stress corrosion cracking form by localized corrosion. However, in some cases,the existence of halide will speed up the uniform corrosion. Particularly in the non-oxidizing acid. In pure sulfuric acid, 254SMO with a much greater corrosion resistance than 316(common stainless steel),but with abated corrosion resistance compared to 904L (NO8904) stainless steel in high concentrations. In the sulfuric acid containing chloride ions , 254SMO with the largest corrosion resistance ability.The 316 can not be used for stainless steel in hydrochloric acid since it may occur localized corrosion and uniform corrosion, but 254SMO can be used in diluted hydrochloric acid in general temperatures,uder the border region do not need to worry about corrosion occurred. However, we must try to avoid the gap cracks. In the fluoride silicate (H2SiF4) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), the corrosion resistance of ordinary stainless steel is very limited, and 254SMO can be used in a very wide temperature and concentration.

Applied field:
254SMO is a mult-purpose material can be used in many industrial applications:
1. Petroleum, petrochemical equipment, petro-chemical equipment, such as the bellows. 
2. Pulp and paper bleaching equipment, such as pulp cooking, bleaching, washing filters used in the barrel and cylinder pressure rollers, and so on. 
3. Power plant flue gas desulphurization equipment, the use of the main parts: the absorption tower, flue and stopping plate, internal part,spray system. 
4. At sea or sea water processing system, such as power plants using sea water to cool the thin-walled Condenser, desalination of sea water processing equipment,can be applied even though the water may not flow in the device.
5. Desalination industries, such as salt or desalination equipment. 
6. Heat exchanger, in particular in the working environment of chloride ion.

Alloy C-276,UNS N10276,2.4819

Chemical composition:

Alloy

%

Ni

Cr

Mo

Fe

W

Co

C

Mn

Si

V

P

S

C

Min.

balance

14.5

15

4

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Max.

16.5

17

7

4.5

2.5

0.08

1

1

0.35

0.04

0.03

C276

Min.

balance

14.5

15

4

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Max.

16.5

17

7

4.5

2.5

0.01

1

0.08

0.35

0.04

0.03

Alloy C-276 Physical properties

Density

8.9 g/cm³

Melting point

1325-1370 ℃

Alloy C-276 Alloy m inimum mechanical properties in the room temperature

Alloy state

Tensile strength
Rm N/mm²

Yield strength
R P0. 2N/mm²

Elongation
A 5 %

C /C276

690

283

40

Characteristic as below 
1.Excellent corrosion resistance to most of corrosion media in oxidation and reduction environments.
2.Excellent resist pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance.

Alloy C-276 Metallurgical structure
C276 is face-centered cubic lattice structure.

Alloy C-276 Corrosion resistance
C276 alloy suit for many kinds of chemical process industry which contain the oxidizing medium and reductant. High molybdenum and chromium content make it can resist the chloride corrosion, and tungsten make it corrosion resistance better.C276 is one of a few material that can resist the corrosion of most chlorine, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide, this alloy have prominent corrosion resistance to high concentration chlorate( iron chloride and copper chloride).

Alloy C-276 Application field
C276 is widely used in the chemical field and petrifaction field, such as the element of chloride organic and catalyze system.This material especially suit for high temperature environment, impure inorganic acid and organic acid (such as formic acid and acetic acid), sea-water corrosion environment.

Alloy C-276 Other application field
1. The digester and bleacher in the use of paper pulp and paper making industry.
2.Absorption tower, re-heater and fan in the FGD system. 
3. The equipment and parts in the use of acidic gas environments.
4. Acetic acid and anhydride reaction generator 
5. Sulfur acid cooling

6.MDI
7.Manufacture and processing of impure phosphoric acid.

Alloy B, UNS N1001

Chemical composition

% Ni Mo Fe Co Cr C Mn Si P S V
min balance 26.0 4.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.20
max 30.0 6.0 2.5 1.00 0.050 1.00 1.00 0.040 0.030 0.40

Physical properties

Density 9.24 g/cm3
Melting range 1330-1380℃

Features: Alloy B has excellent resistance to reducing environments like sulfuric acid at moderate concentrations and other nonoxidizing acids. It also resists stress corrosion cracking induced by chlorides. Hastelloy B has poor resistance to oxidizing environments, therefore, it should not be used where ferric or cupric salts are present as these salts may cause rapid corrosion failure.

Applications: Equipment handling reducing chemical environments; and chemical process industry involving hydrochloric, sulfuric, phosphoric and acetic acids.

Note: Hastelloy is a registered trademark of Haynes International, Inc.

Alloy B-2, UNS N10665

Alloy B-2 UNS N10665

 

Summary

A corrosion-resistant solid-solution nickel-molybdenum alloy, Alloy B-2 exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in aggressive reducing media such as hydrochloric acid in a wide range of temperatures and concentrations, as well as in medium-concentrated sulphuric acid even with limited chloride contamination. Can also be used in acetic and phosphoric acids, and to a wide range of organic acids. The alloy has good resistance to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC).

Standard
Product Forms

Pipe, tube, sheet, plate, round bar flanes, valve, and forging.

Limiting Chemical Composition, %

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

Ni

Remainder

Cu

0.5

C

0.02

Cr

 

1.0

Co

 

1.0

Si

0.1

Fe

2.0

Al

P

0.04

Mo

26.0

30.0

Ti

S

0.03

W

Mn

1.0

N

 

Physical
Constants

Density,g/cm3

9.2

Melting Range,℃

1330-1380

 

Typical
Mechanical
Properties

(Solution-treated)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product forms

Yield strenth

Tensile strenth

Elongation

Brinell

hardness

Plate Sheet

340

755

40

250

Rod Bar

325

745

Pipe Tube

340

755

 

Microstructure


Alloy B-2 has a face-centered-cubic structure. The alloy’s controlled chemistry with minimum iron and chromium content reduces the risk of embrittlement occurring during fabrication, as this retards precipitation of Ni4Mo phase in the temperature range 700-800 ℃.

Characters

1. Controled chemistry with a minimum iron and chrlmium content to retard the formation of ordered β-phase Ni4Mo ;
2. Significant corrosion resistance to reducing environment;
3. Excellent resistance to medium-concentrated sulphuric acid and a number of non-oxidizing acids;
4. Good resistance to chloride-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC);
5. Good resistance to a wide range of organic acids.

Corrosion Resistance

The extremely low carbon and silicon content of Hastelloy B-2 reduces precipitation of carbides and other phases in the heat-affected zone of welds and ensures adequate corrosion resistance even in the welded condition. Hastelloy B-2 exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in aggressive reducing media such as hydrochloric acid in a wide range of temperatures and concentrations, as well as in medium-concentrated sulphuric acid even with limited chloride contamination. It can also be used in acetic and phosphoric acids. Optimum corrosion resistance can be obtained only if the material is in the correct metallurgical condition and exhibits a clean structure.

Applications

Alloy B-2 is used in a wide range of applications in the chemical process industry, especially for processes involving sulphuric, hydrochloric, phosphoric and acetic acid. B-2 is not recommended for use in the presence of ferric or cupric salts as these salts may cause rapid corrosion failure. Ferric or cupric salts may develop when hydrochloric acid comes in contact with iron or copper.

Alloy B-3, UNS N10675

Alloy B-3 alloy is an additional member of the nickel-molybdenum family of alloys with excellent resistance to hydrochloric acid at all concentrations and temperatures. It also withstands sulfuric, acetic, formic and phosphoric acids, and other nonoxidizing media. B-3 alloy has a special chemistry designed to achieve a level of thermal stability greatly superior to that of its predecessors, e.g. Alloy B-2 alloy. B-3 alloy has excellent resistance to pitting corrosion, to stress-corrosion cracking and to knife-line and heat-affected zone attack.
Pipe, tube, sheet, plate, round bar , flanes, valve, and forging.

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

Ni

65.0

Cu

0.2

C

0.01

Cr

1

3

Co

 

3

Si

0.1

Fe

1

3

Al

0.5

P

0.03

Mo

27

32

Ti

0.2

S

0.01

W

3

Mn

3

V

0.2

Melting Range,℃

9.22

Melting Range,℃

1330-1380

 

Tensile Properties of Sheet (Limited data for 0.125″ (3.2mm) bright annealed sheet

Test Temperature, ℃:Room

Tensile Strength, Mpa:860

Rp0.2 Yield Strength, Mpa: 420

Elongation in 51mm, %: 53.4

 

Alloy B-3 also has a face-centered-cubic structure.

1. Maintains excellent ductility during transient exposures to intermediate temperatures
2. Excellent resistance to pitting and stress-corrosion cracking
3. Excellent resistance to knife-line and heat-affected zone attack
4. Excellent resistance to acetic, formic and phosphoric acids and other non-oxidizing media
5. Resistance to hydrochloric acid at all concentrations and temperatures
6. Thermal stability superior to alloy B-2.

 

Alloy B-3 alloy is suitable for use in all applications previously requiring the use of Alloy B-2 alloy. Like B-2 alloy, B-3 is not recommended for use in the presence of ferric or cupric salts as these salts may cause rapid corrosion failure. Ferric or cupric salts may develop when hydrochloric acid comes in contact with iron or copper.

Alloy C-4, UNS N06455

 Alloy C-4 Chemical compostion:

Alloy

%

Ni

Cr

Mo

Fe

C

Mn

Si

Co

S

P

Ti

C-4

Min.

65

14

14  

 

       

 

 

Max.

 

18

17

3.0

0.01

1.0

0.08

2.0

0.010

0.025

0.70

Alloy C-4 Physical properties:

Density

8.64 g/cm3

Melting point

1350-1400 ℃

Alloy C-4 Alloy minimum mechanical properties in the room temperature:
Alloy
Tensile strength
Rm N/mm2
Yield strength
RP0.2N/mm2
Elongation
A5 %
C-4
783
365
55

Alloy C-4 alloy is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with outstanding high-temperature stability as evidenced by high ductility and corrosion resistance even
after aging in the 1200 to 1900°F (649 to 1038°C) range. This alloy resists the formation of grain-boundary precipitates in the weld heat-affected zone, thus making it suitable for most chemical process applications in the as-welded condition. C-4 alloy also has excellent resistance to stress-corrosion cracking and to oxidizing atmospheres up to 1900°F (1038°C).
Alloy C-4 alloy has exceptional resistance to wide variety of chemical process environments. These include hot contaminated mineral acids, solvents, chlorine and chlorine contaminated media (organic and inorganic), dry chlorine, formic and acetic acids, acetic anhydride, and seawater and brine solutions.
Alloy C-4 alloy can be forged, hot-upset, and impact extruded. Although the alloy tends to work-harden, it can be successfully deep-drawn, spun, press formed or punched. All of the common methods of welding can be used to weld Alloy C-4 alloy, although the oxy-acetylene and submerged arc processes are not recommended when the fabricated item is intended for use in corrosion service. Special precautions should be taken to avoid excessive heat input.

Alloy C22, UNS N06022

Alloy C-22 Chemical composition:

Alloy

%

Ni

Cr

Mo

Fe

W

Co

C

Mn

Si

V

P

S

C

Min.

balance

14.5

15

4

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Max.

16.5

17

7

4.5

2.5

0.08

1

1

0.35

0.04

0.03

C22

Min.

balance

20.0

12.5

2

2.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Max.

22.5

14.5

6

3.5

2.5

0.015

0.5

0.08

0.35

0.02

0.02

Alloy C-22 Physical properties

Density

8.9 g/cm³

Melting point

1325-1370 ℃

Alloy C-22 Alloy m inimum mechanical properties in the roomtemperature

Alloy state

Tensile strength 
Rm N/mm²

Yield strength
R P 0.2 N/mm²

Elongation
A 5 %

Hastelloy C22

690

283

40

Characteristic as below :

Alloy C22 is a omnipotent of nickel, chromium and molybdenum mixed alloy, with better corrosion resistance performance than other alloys, for example, Alloy C276 alloy, C4 alloy and 625 alloy. Alloy C22 have a good resistance performance to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, have excellent inoxidability water medium performance, including the wet-chlorine, nitric acid or oxidizing acid mixed acid with chloride ion. Meantime, Alloy C22 possesses perfect resistance to reduction and oxidation of processing enviroments, then it can be used in some complicated environment or with many different manufacture target factory depend on the omnipotent performance. alloy C22 possess prominent resistance performance to different chemical environments, including strong oxidizing matter, such as iron chloride, copper chloride, chlorine, heat pollution liquid(organic and inorganic), formic acid, acetic acid, acetyl oxide, sea water and salting liquid and so on. Alloy C22 alloy can resist the grain boundary precipitate form when jointing heat affected zone, this performance made it can applied in many kinds of chemical processing.

Alloy C-22 Metallurgical structure
Alloy C22 is face-centered cubic lattice structure.

Alloy C-22 Corrosion resistance
Alloy C22 alloy suit for many kinds of chemical process industry which contain the oxidizing medium and reductant. High molybdenum and chromium content make it can resist the chloride corrosion, and tungsten makethis corrosion resistancebetter.Alloy C22 is one of a few material that can resist thecorrosion of moist chlorine, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide, this alloyhave prominent corrosion resistanceto high concentration chlorate( iron chloride and copper chloride).

Alloy C-22 Application field:
Alloy C22 is widely used in the chemical field and petrifaction field, such as the element of chloride organic and catalyze system.This material especially suit for high temperature environments, impure inorganic acid and organic acid (such as formic acid and acetic acid), sea-water corrosion environments.
Alloy C-22 Other application field:
1.Acetic acid/acetyl oxide
2.Acid dipping 
3.Cellophane paper manufacture
4.Chloride system
5. Complicated mixed acid
6.Electrogalvanizing groove roller
7.Expansion bellows
8.Flue gas washer system
9.Geothermal well
10.Fluorine hydride furnace cleaner
11.Incineration cleaner system
12.Nuclear fuel regeneration
13.Pesticide manufacture 
14.Phosphoric acid manufacture 
15.Acid cleaning system 
16.Plate heat exchanger
17.Selectivity filter system 
18.Sulfur dioxide cooling tower
19.Sulfonating system
20.Tubing heat exchanger
21.Resurfacing welding valve

Alloy C-2000, UNS N06200

 Chemical composition

% Ni Cr Mo Fe Co C Mn Si P S Cu Al
min balance 22.0 15.0               1.3  
max 24.0 17.0 3.0 2.0 0.010 0.50 0.08 0.025 0.010 1.9 0.50

Physical properties

Density 8.50 g/cm3
Melting range 1328-1358℃

Features: Alloy C-2000 is a versatile corrosion resistant alloy with excellent resistance to uniform corrosion in oxidizing or reducing environments. It resists all acids, especially hydrochloric, sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids, at wide temperature ranges, and also resists pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking induced by chlorides and other halide solutions.

Applications: Chemical process industry reactors, heat exchangers, columns and piping; pharmaceutical industry reactors and dryers; and flue gas desulfurization system components.

Note:alloy and C-2000 are registered trademarks of Haynes International, Inc.

Alloy G-35, UNS N06035

 Chemical composition

% Ni Cr Fe Mo W Co C Mn Si P S Cu Nb+Ta
min balance 28.0 13.0 4.0 1.5             1.0 0.30
max 31.5 17.0 6.0 4.0 5.0 0.030 1.5 0.80 0.040 0.020 2.4 1.50

Physical properties

Density 8.22 g/cm3
Melting range 1370-1400℃

Features: Alloy G-35 is a high chromium nickel-base alloy which has superior corrosion resistance over most other nickel and iron-base alloys in commercial phosphoric acid as well as many complex environments containing highly oxidizing acids such as nitric/hydrochloric, nitric/hydrofluoric and sulfuric acids. It resists the formation of grain boundary precipitates in the heat-affected zone, making it suitable for use in most chemical process environments in the as-welded condition.

Applications: Chemical processing involving phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and nitric acid; nuclear fuel reprocessing; nuclear waste processing; pickling operations; petrochemical; fertilizer manufacture; pesticide manufacture; and gold ore extraction.

Note: Alloy G-35 are registered trademarks of Haynes International, Inc.

Alloy S, UNS N06635

Chemical composition

% Ni Cr Mo Fe Co W C Mn Si P S Al Cu La B
min balance 14.5 14.0         0.30 0.20     0.10   0.01  
max 17.0 16.5 3.0 2.0 1.00 0.020 1.00 0.75 0.020 0.015 0.50 0.35 0.10 0.015

Physical properties

Density 8.75 g/cm3
Melting range 1335-1380℃

Features: Alloy S has excellent thermal stability, low thermal expansion and excellent oxidation resistance at 1093℃. It has good high temperature and thermal fatigue strength. It retains its strength and ductility after aging at temperatures of 427 to 871℃. Hastelloy S is particularly suitable for cyclical heating conditions where components must be capable of retaining their strength, ductility and metallurgical integrity after long time exposure.

Applications: Industrial furnaces, and gas turbine engine seal rings.

Note: Alloy S  is a registered trademark of Haynes International, Inc.

Alloy 230, UNS N06230

 Chemical composition

% Ni Cr W Mo Co Fe C Mn Si P S Al La B
min balance 20.0 13.0 1.0     0.05 0.30 0.25     0.20 0.005  
max 24.0 15.0 3.0 5.0 3.0 0.15 1.00 0.75 0.030 0.015 0.50 0.050 0.015

Physical properties

Density 8.97 g/cm3
Melting range 1301-1371℃

Features:Alloy 230 combines excellent high temperature strength, outstanding resistance to oxidizing environments up to 1149℃ for prolonged exposure, premier resistance to nitriding environments, and excellent long term thermal stability. It has low thermal expansion than most high temperature alloys, and good resistance to grain coarsening with prolonged exposure to high temperatures.

Applications: Gas turbine engine combustion cans, transition ducts, after-burners, flameholders and thermocouple sheaths; high temperature heat exchangers; and industrial furnace heat resistant components.

Note: Alloy 230 are registered trademarks of Haynes International, Inc.

Alloy X750, UNS N07750

 Chemical composition

% Ni Cr Fe C Mn Si S Ti Nb+Ta Al Co Cu
min 70.0 14.0 5.0         2.25 0.70 0.40    
max   17.0 9.0 0.08 1.00 0.50 0.010 2.75 1.20 1.00 1.00 0.50

Physical properties

Density 8.28 g/cm3
Melting range 1393-1427℃

Features: Alloy X750 is an age-hardenable nickel-chromium alloy. It has good corrosion and oxidation resistance and high strength at temperatures up to 700℃. It also has good properties down to cryogenic temperatures. Its corrosion resistance performance is similar to Alloy 600.

Applications: Gas turbine engines, rocket motors, heat treating fixtures, nuclear reactors, pressure vessels and airframes.

Note: Inconel is a registered trademark of the Special Metals Corporation group of companies.

Alloy 617, UNS N06617

Chemical composition

% Ni Cr Co Mo Fe C Mn Si S Al Ti Cu B
min 44.5 20.0 10.0 8.0   0.05       0.80      
max   24.0 15.0 10.0 3.0 0.15 1.00 1.00 0.015 1.50 0.60 0.50 0.006

Physical properties

Density 8.36 g/cm3
Melting range 1330-1375℃

Features: Alloy 617 has excellent resistance to oxidation and carburization at high temperatures. It also resists a wide range of corrosive aqueous environments. Alloy 617 has high strength and maintains much of its strength at elevated temperatures.

Applications: Gas turbine engine combustion cans and ducts, heat treating equipment, petrochemical processing, power plant equipment, and catalyst-grid supports in nitric acid production.

Note: Inconel is a registered trademark of the Special Metals Corporation group of companies.

Alloy 925, UNS N09925

 Chemical composition

% Ni Fe Cr C Mn Si P S Mo Cu Ti Al Nb
min 42.0 22.0 19.5           2.5 1.5 1.9 0.10  
max 46.0   22.5 0.030 1.00 0.50 0.030 0.030 3.5 3.0 2.4 0.50 0.50

Physical properties

Density 8.08 g/cm3
Melting range 1311-1366℃

Features:Alloy 925 is a precipitation-hardenable nickel-iron-chromium alloy. It combines high strength with Alloy 825’s excellent corrosion resistance. Alloy 925 is particularly resistant to sulfide-induced stress cracking and stress-corrosion cracking.

Applications: Down-hole and surface well components for sour (containing hydrogen sulfide) crude oil and natural gas production.

Note: Incoloy is a registered trademark of the Special Metals Corporation group of companies.

UNS N02201, UNS N02200

Chemical composition of Nickel 200

% Ni Fe C Mn Si S Cu
min 99.0            
max   0.40 0.15 0.35 0.35 0.010 0.25

Physical properties

Density 8.89 g/cm3
Melting range 1435-1446℃

Features: Nickel 200 is commercially pure wrought nickel. It is highly resistant to various reducing chemicals. It can also be used in oxidizing conditions that cause the formation of a passive oxide film, for instance its unexcelled resistance to caustic alkalis. Nickel 200 is limited to service at temperatures below 315℃, because at higher temperatures it suffers from graphitization which results in severely compromised properties. In that circumstance, Nickel 201 is used instead. It has a high Curie temperature and good magnetostrictive properties. Its thermal and electrical conductivities are higher than nickel alloys.

Applications: Useful for applications where maintaining product purity is considered such as handling of caustic alkalis, foods and synthetic fibers; electrical and electronic parts; aerospace and missile components; and chemical storage and shipping tanks.

Chemical composition of  Nickel 201

% Ni Fe C Mn Si S Cu
min 99.0            
max   0.40 0.020 0.35 0.35 0.010 0.25

Physical properties

Density 8.89 g/cm3
Melting range 1435-1446℃

Features: Nickel 201 is the low-carbon version of Nickel 200. Because of its low carbon content, Nickel 201 is not subject to embrittlement by intergranularly precipitated carbon or graphite when exposed to temperatures of 315 to 760℃ for prolonged time if carbonaceous materials are not in contact with it. Therefore, it is a substitute for Nickel 200 in Applications above 315℃. However it does suffer from intergranular embrittlement by sulfur compounds at temperatures above 315℃. Sodium peroxide can be used to change them to sulfates to counteract their effect.

Applications: Electronic components, caustic evaporators, combustion boats and plater bars.

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