Classification of copper alloys: brass, bronze, white copper, red copper

Copper alloy refers to the alloy formed by adding one or several other elements on the basis of pure copper. The classification of copper alloys is quite understandable. There are many kinds of colors of copper alloys. There are different kinds of copper alloys without copper. Copper alloys mainly have purple, yellow, cyan and other colors.

Copper alloy refers to an alloy formed by adding one or more other elements to pure copper. The classification of copper alloys is quite easy to understand. There are many colors of copper alloys. The types of copper alloys that are not copper have different colors. Copper alloys mainly have purple, yellow, and cyan colors. When oxidized, the copper alloy will also change color. Let’s talk about the die casting process of copper alloy. Copper alloys of different compositions are alloys composed of one or several other elements. Do you know? For example, silicon brass has better casting performance, and the process is characterized by sequential solidification process, mid-casting gating system, and smaller dark riser size . There are also bronze and aluminum brass. They have good casting properties and are easy to form concentrated shrinkage cavities and are extremely easy to oxidize. Let us immediately explain the relevant knowledge of the classification of copper alloys.
There are many ways to classify copper alloys, and there are many types according to different classification methods. Then let’s talk about the classification of copper alloys: brass, bronze, cupronickel, and copper.

  • Brass: refers to an alloy based on copper and zinc, which can be subdivided into simple brass and complex brass. In complex brass, the third component is named nickel brass, silicon brass, etc.;
  • Bronze: refers to copper-based alloys other than copper-nickel and copper-zinc alloys. The main varieties are tin bronze, aluminum bronze, and special bronze (also known as high copper alloy);
  • Cupronickel: refers to copper-nickel alloy;
  • Red copper: refers to pure copper, the main varieties are oxygen-free copper, red copper, phosphorus deoxidized copper, silver copper.

Copper alloy classification: divided by alloy series:

  • 1. Unalloyed copper: Unalloyed copper includes high-purity copper, toughened copper, deoxidized copper, oxygen-free copper, etc. Traditionally, people call unalloyed copper red copper or pure copper, also called red copper.
  • 2. Other copper alloys belong to alloy copper. my country and Russia divide copper alloys into brass, bronze and copper-nickel alloy, and then divide them in a large category: small alloy series.

Copper alloy classification: divided by function:

  • 1. Copper alloys for electrical and thermal conductivity (mainly unalloyed copper and microalloyed copper.
  • 2. Copper alloys for structure: almost include all copper alloys.
  • 3. Corrosion-resistant copper alloys: mainly tin brass, aluminum brass, various non-white copper, aluminum bronze, titanium bronze, etc.
  • 4. Wear-resistant copper alloys: mainly complex brass and aluminum bronze containing lead, tin, aluminum, manganese and other elements.
  • 5. Free-cutting copper alloys: copper-lead, copper-tellurium, copper-antimony and other alloys.
  • 6. Elastic copper alloys: mainly antimony bronze, aluminum bronze, beryllium bronze, titanium bronze, etc.
  • 7. Damping copper alloy: high manganese copper alloy, etc.
  • 8. Artistic copper alloys: pure copper, simple single copper, tin bronze, aluminum bronze, cupronickel, etc.

Copper alloy classification: According to the material formation method, it is divided into:

  • 1. Casting copper alloy: Casting can also be used for deformation processing.
  • 2. Wrought copper alloy: Wrought copper alloy can be used for casting.
  • 3. Cast copper alloys and deformed copper alloys can be subdivided into casting copper, brass, bronze and cupronickel.

The knowledge of copper alloy classification is introduced above. There are many types of copper alloy as a processing material. Let’s talk about the classification of copper alloy processing materials: it is divided into eight varieties (commonly known as eight categories) such as plates, strips, foils, strips, pipes, bars, wires and profiles. Generally speaking, when the thickness of the strip is less than 0.1 mm, it is called foil (Chinese customs call the thickness less than 0.15 mm as foil). The division of bar and wire: except for straight bars and reels, usually the diameter is less than 5 The millimeter reel is called wire, and the one supplied in straight bars is called small rod.
1. Copper alloy plate, strip and foil: Copper alloy plate, strip and foil products are plate, strip, strip and foil according to the shape and size.

  • (1) Copper alloy sheet: The last rolling state of copper alloy sheet, strip and foil products is divided into hot-rolled sheet and cold-rolled sheet. The common size range of hot-rolled sheet is: 4~150mm (thickness)×200~3000mm (width)×500~6000mm length. The common dimensions of cold rolled plates are: 0.2~12mm (thickness)×100~3000mm (thickness)×500~6000mm (length). The state of sheet products includes hot rolled state (R), soft state (M), semi-hard state (Y2), hard state (Y), extra hard state (T) and heat treatment state (CS).
  • (2) Copper alloy strip: The strip size ranges from 0.05 to 3 mm (thickness) to 10 to 1000 mm (width), and is supplied in coils. The state of strip products is divided into soft state (M), semi-hard state (Y2), hard state (Y), and extra hardness (T).
  • (3) Copper alloy strip (also known as copper strip): The thickness of the strip is between the plate and the strip, and the size range is generally: 0.2~10mm (thickness)×50~100mm (width)×1500~2000mm (length) ). Commonly used strip products include pure copper strips, brass strips, and bronze strips.
  • (4) Copper alloy foil: domestic copper processed foil refers to plates and strips with a thickness of less than 0.05mm, and foreign refers to plates and strips with a thickness of less than 0.1m, all of which belong to rolled copper foil (rolled copper foil). Does not include electrolytic copper foil. Commonly used foil products include pure copper foil, brass foil, bronze foil, and cupronickel foil. The size range of the foil is: 0.05~0.1mm (thickness)×40~600mm (width). It is supplied in rolls. The length should not be less than 5000mm. Its state is divided into soft state (M) and hard state (Y). Copper alloy foil products are mostly hard, and pure copper products with a thickness of not more than 0.02mm are generally hard.

2. Copper alloy tube, rod and wire: Copper alloy tube, rod and wire are subdivided into tubes, bars and wires according to the product shape.

  • (1) Copper alloy pipes: The pipes are divided into round, trapezoidal, triangular, rectangular, and square pipes. The size range is: 0.5~360mm (outer diameter)×0.1~50mm (wall thickness), straight or rolled The state of the product is divided into extrusion state (R), soft state (M), light soft state (M2), hard state (Y), semi-hard state (Y2), and 1/3 hard state (Y3).
  • (2) Copper alloy bars: Copper alloy bars are divided into copper alloy round bars, copper alloy hexagonal bars, copper alloy square bars, copper alloy rectangular bars and copper alloy guide bars, and the size range is 3 ~ 120mm (diameter) ×500~5000 (length), straight bar supply, the product state is divided into extruded state (R), soft state (M), forged state (M2), hard state (Y), semi-hard state (Y2), soft state Aging state (TF00), hard aging state (TF04) products.
  • (3) Copper alloy wire rod: Copper wire rod refers to the blank of the production wire rod, also called copper wire rod. There are bright rods and black rods. The black rods are hot-rolled from boat-shaped ingots on a horizontal pass rolling mill. The surface is seriously oxidized and has been basically eliminated. The diameter of the wire rod is between 6 and 20mm, and it is produced by continuous casting and rolling or upward (or horizontal) continuous casting.

Source: China Pipe Fittings Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry (

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

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