How to get high quality lap joint flanges?

What is a lap joint flange?

A Lap Joint Flange is a two piece device that is much like a weld-neck flange but also like a loose slip-on flange. One piece is a sleeve called a ‘Stub-end” and is shaped like a short piece of pipe with a weld bevel on one end and a narrow shoulder on the other end called the hub. The hub is the same outside diameter as the raised face (gasket contact surface) of a weld neck flange. The thickness of the hub is normally about ¼” to 3/8″. The back face of the hub has a rounded transition (or inside fillet) that joins the hub to the sleeve. Lap joint pipe flanges slide directly over the pipe and are most commonly used with stub end fittings. A pipe is usually welded to the Stub End and the Lap Joint pipe flange is free to rotate around the stub end. The benefit of this is that there will not be any issues with bolt hole alignment. Lap Joint pipe flanges are often used for applications that require frequent dismantling.
The other piece of a Lap Joint Flange is the backing flange. This flange has all the same common dimensions (O.D., bolt circle, bolt hole size, etc.) as any other flange however it does not have a raised face. One side, the backside, has a slight shoulder that is square cut at the center or pipe hole. The front side has flat face and at the center hole an outside fillet to match the fillet of the “Stub-end” piece. The flange part of the Lap-joint flange assembly is slipped on to the stub-end prior to the sleeve being welded to the adjoining pipe or fitting. The flange itself is not welded or fixed in any way. It is free to spin for proper alignment with what ever it is joining to.
The “Stub-end” can normally be purchased in two lengths. There is a short version, about 3″ long and a long version of about 6″ long. It is prudent for the piping designer to know which version is in the piping specification.
Because of it’s two piece configuration, the Lap Joint Flange offers a way to cut cost or simplify work. The cost saving comes when the piping system requires a high cost alloy for all “wetted” parts to reduce corrosion. The sleeve or Stub-end can be the required higher cost alloy but the flange can be the lower cost forged carbon steel.
The lap joint flange can be rotated which can be useful when fixing issues with bolt hole alignment. When designing a piping system, lap joint flanges should not be considered solely to alleviate poor alignment during construction. Good design practice should not need to include poor construction quality. However, if the piping needs to be frequently dismantled for inspection or cleaning, consideration should be made for lap joint flanges. They give the ability to swivel flanges and to align bolt holes which simplifies the assembly of large diameter or unusually stiff piping.
Lap joint flanges are usually used in low pressure applications and are not suitable when there are high loads on the flange pair. Some types of piping require the use of lap joint flanges. For example, metallic pipe that has been plastic lining may have lap joint flanges.
Using lap joint flanges might be an option for saving costs when the piping is made of exotic materials. By using a lap joint flange, the wetted materials would consist of the exotic materials and the flange would be carbon steel. Since the flange doesn’t ever come in contact with the process fluid, it would not be affected by the fluids.

Lap joint flanges are usually used in low pressure applications and are not suitable when there are high loads on the flange pair. Some types of piping require the use of lap joint flanges. For example, metallic pipe that has been plastic lining may have lap joint flanges.

Using lap joint flanges might be an option for saving costs when the piping is made of exotic materials. By using a lap joint flange, the wetted materials would consist of the exotic materials and the flange would be carbon steel. Since the flange doesn’t ever come in contact with the process fluid, it would not be affected by the fluids.

Dimensions on the lap joint flange are similar to weld neckslip on or socket weld flanges. The backing flange has the same number of bolt holes, size and thickness of a weld neck or slip on flange.

STUB ENDS

There are three different types of stub ends, Type A, B and C. Type A stub ends are machined to fit in a standard lap joint backing flange. The mating surfaces are shaped with the same profile to allow for uniform loading of the flare face. Type B stub ends are ends that are designed to be used with a standard slip on flange. Both Type A & B stub ends are either cast or forged.

Type C ends are designed to be used with either a lap joint flange or a slip on flange. Type C ends are fabricated from pipe. The most common type of fabrication is through the use of a machine flare. This is done by using a machine to flare the end of the pipe and then cutting it to length.

The stub end is available in two separate lengths, a short pattern and a long pattern. Long pattern ends are also known as ASA Stub Ends. Short pattern ends are used with larger flanges for ANSI 300 & 600. They generally are used for most sizes ANSI 900 & above.

Standards, Dimensions & Weight of lap joint flanges
  • ASME/ANSI B16.5 Class 150 Lap Joint Flangeslap joint flange with stub end banner - How to get high quality lap joint flanges?
    Nominal Pipe Size  Outside Diameter of Flange Thickness of Lap Joint Min. Diameter of Hub Length Through Hub Bore Corner Radius of Bore of Lapped Flange Diameter of Bolt Circle Diameter of Bolt Holes Number of Bolts Approxi-mate Weight kgs
    NPS O tf X Y B r W I n
    1/2 90 11.2 30 16 22.9 3 60.3 15.9 4 0.46
    3/4 100 12.7 38 16 28.2 3 69.9 15.9 4 0.66
    1 110 14.3 49 17 34.9 3 79.4 15.9 4 0.89
    1 1/4 115 15.9 59 21 43.7 5 88.9 15.9 4 1.06
    1 1/2 125 17.5 65 22 50.0 6 98.4 15.9 4 1.36
    2 150 19.1 78 25 62.5 8 120.7 19.1 4 2.10
    2 1/2 180 22.3 90 29 75.4 8 139.7 19.1 4 3.58
    3 190 23.9 108 30 91.4 10 152.4 19.1 4 4.00
    3 1/2 215 23.9 122 32 104.1 10 177.8 19.1 8 4.99
    4 230 23.9 135 33 116.8 11 190.5 19.1 8 5.62
    5 255 23.9 164 36 144.4 11 215.9 22.2 8 6.38
    6 280 25.4 192 40 171.4 13 241.3 22.2 8 7.74
    8 345 28.6 246 44 222.2 13 298.5 22.2 8 12.65
    10 405 30.2 305 49 277.4 13 362.0 25.4 12 16.65
    12 485 31.8 365 56 328.2 13 431.8 25.4 12 27.31
    14 535 35.0 400 79 360.2 13 476.3 28.6 12 39.89
    16 595 36.6 457 87 411.2 13 539.8 28.6 16 51.18
    18 635 39.7 505 97 462.3 13 577.9 31.8 16 57.07
    20 700 42.9 559 103 514.4 13 635.0 31.8 20 72.08
    24 815 47.7 663 111 616.0 13 749.3 34.9 20 100.11

  • ASME/ANSI B16.5 Class 300 Lap Joint Flanges
    Nominal Pipe Size  Outside Diameter of Flange Thickness of Lap Joint Min. Diameter of Hub Length Through Hub Bore Corner Radius of Bore of Lapped Flange Diameter of Bolt Circle Diameter of Bolt Holes Number of Bolts Approxi-mate Weight kgs
    NPS O tf X Y B r W I n
    1/2 95 14.3 38 22 22.9 3 66.7 15.9 4 0.70
    3/4 115 15.9 48 25 28.2 3 82.6 19.1 4 1.16
    1 125 17.5 54 27 34.9 3 88.9 19.1 4 1.50
    1 1/4 135 19.1 64 27 43.7 5 98.4 19.1 4 1.86
    1 1/2 155 20.7 70 30 50.0 6 114.3 22.2 4 2.63
    2 165 22.3 84 33 62.5 8 127.0 19.1 8 3.02
    2 1/2 190 25.4 100 38 75.4 8 149.2 22.2 8 4.48
    3 210 28.6 117 43 91.4 10 168.3 22.2 8 6.08
    3 1/2 230 30.2 133 44 104.1 10 184.2 22.2 8 7.68
    4 255 31.8 146 48 116.8 11 200.0 22.2 8 10.07
    5 280 35.0 178 51 144.4 11 235.0 22.2 8 12.64
    6 320 36.6 206 52 171.4 13 269.9 22.2 12 16.39
    8 380 41.3 260 62 222.2 13 330.2 25.4 12 24.57
    10 445 47.7 321 95 277.4 13 387.4 28.6 16 39.40
    12 520 50.8 375 102 328.2 13 450.8 31.8 16 56.33
    14 585 54.0 425 111 360.2 13 514.4 31.8 20 81.97
    16 650 57.2 483 121 411.2 13 571.5 34.9 20 106.10
    18 710 60.4 533 130 462.3 13 628.6 34.9 24 127.52
    20 775 63.5 587 140 514.4 13 685.8 34.9 24 157.92
    24 915 69.9 702 152 616.0 13 812.8 41.3 24 237.21

  • ASME/ANSI B16.5 Class 600 Lap Joint Flanges
    Nominal Pipe Size  Outside Diameter of Flange Thickness of Lap Joint Min. Diameter of Hub Length Through Hub Bore Corner Radius of Bore of Lapped Flange Diameter of Bolt Circle Diameter of Bolt Holes Number of Bolts Approxi-mate Weight kgs
    NPS O tf X Y B r W I n
    1/2 95 14.3 38 22 22.9 3 66.7 15.9 4 0.70
    3/4 115 15.9 48 25 28.2 3 82.6 19.1 4 1.16
    1 125 17.5 54 27 34.9 3 88.9 19.1 4 1.50
    1 1/4 135 20.7 64 29 43.7 5 98.4 19.1 4 2.01
    1 1/2 155 22.3 70 32 50.0 6 114.3 22.2 4 2.83
    2 165 25.4 84 37 62.5 8 127.0 19.1 8 3.42
    2 1/2 190 28.6 100 41 75.4 8 149.2 22.2 8 5.00
    3 210 31.8 117 46 91.4 10 168.3 22.2 8 6.71
    3 1/2 230 35.0 133 49 104.1 10 184.2 25.4 8 8.56
    4 275 38.1 152 54 116.8 11 215.9 25.4 8 14.29
    5 330 44.5 189 60 144.4 11 266.7 28.6 8 23.80
    6 355 47.7 222 67 171.4 13 292.1 28.6 12 27.93
    8 420 55.6 273 76 222.2 13 349.2 31.8 12 42.59
    10 510 63.5 343 111 277.4 13 431.8 34.9 16 76.04
    12 560 66.7 400 117 328.2 13 489.0 34.9 20 90.92
    14 605 69.9 432 127 360.2 13 527.0 38.1 20 109.42
    16 685 76.2 495 140 411.2 13 603.2 41.3 20 154.99
    18 745 82.6 546 152 462.3 13 654.0 44.5 20 189.94
    20 815 88.9 610 165 514.4 13 723.9 44.5 24 243.66
    24 940 101.6 718 184 616.0 13 838.2 50.8 24 346.39

  • ASME/ANSI B16.5 Class 900 Lap Joint Flanges
    Nominal Pipe Size  Outside Diameter of Flange Thickness of Lap Joint Min. Diameter of Hub Length Through Hub Bore Corner Radius of Bore of Lapped Flange Diameter of Bolt Circle Diameter of Bolt Holes Number of Bolts Approxi-mate Weight kgs
    NPS O tf X Y B r W I n
    1/2 120 22.3 38 32 22.9 3 82.6 22.2 4 1.69
    3/4 130 25.4 44 35 28.2 3 88.9 22.2 4 2.28
    1 150 28.6 52 41 34.9 3 101.6 25.4 4 3.41
    1 1/4 160 28.6 64 41 43.7 5 111.1 25.4 4 3.89
    1 1/2 180 31.8 70 44 50.0 6 123.8 28.6 4 5.41
    2 215 38.1 105 57 62.5 8 165.1 25.4 8 9.57
    2 1/2 245 41.3 124 64 75.4 8 190.5 28.6 8 13.54
    3 240 38.1 127 54 91.4 10 190.5 25.4 8 11.13
    4 290 44.5 159 70 116.8 11 235.0 31.8 8 18.96
    5 350 50.8 190 79 144.4 11 279.4 34.9 8 31.45
    6 380 55.6 235 86 171.4 13 317.5 31.8 12 40.16
    8 470 63.5 298 114 222.2 13 393.7 38.1 12 72.66
    10 545 69.9 368 127 277.4 13 469.9 38.1 16 105.50
    12 610 79.4 419 143 328.2 13 533.4 38.1 20 141.92
    14 640 85.8 451 156 360.2 13 558.8 41.3 20 162.02
    16 705 88.9 508 165 411.2 13 616.0 44.5 20 199.98
    18 785 101.6 565 190 462.3 13 685.8 50.8 20 277.51
    20 855 108.0 622 210 514.4 13 749.3 54.0 20 348.93
    24 1040 139.7 749 267 616.0 13 901.7 66.7 20 671.17

  • ASME/ANSI B16.5 Class 1500 Lap Joint Flanges
    Nominal Pipe Size  Outside Diameter of Flange Thickness of Lap Joint Min. Diameter of Hub Length Through Hub Bore Corner Radius of Bore of Lapped Flange Diameter of Bolt Circle Diameter of Bolt Holes Number of Bolts Approxi-mate Weight kgs
    NPS O tf X Y B r W I n
    1/2 120 22.3 38 32 22.9 3 82.6 22.2 4 1.69
    3/4 130 25.4 44 35 28.2 3 88.9 22.2 4 2.28
    1 150 28.6 52 41 34.9 3 101.6 25.4 4 3.41
    1 1/4 160 28.6 64 41 43.7 5 111.1 25.4 4 3.89
    1 1/2 180 31.8 70 44 50.0 6 123.8 28.6 4 5.41
    2 215 38.1 105 57 62.5 8 165.1 25.4 8 9.57
    2 1/2 245 41.3 124 64 75.4 8 190.5 28.6 8 13.54
    3 265 47.7 133 73 91.4 10 203.2 31.8 8 17.29
    4 310 54.0 162 90 116.8 11 241.3 34.9 8 27.02
    5 375 73.1 197 105 144.4 11 292.1 41.3 8 51.41
    6 395 82.6 229 119 171.4 13 317.5 38.1 12 60.85
    8 485 92.1 292 143 222.2 13 393.7 44.5 12 103.41
    10 585 108.0 368 178 277.4 13 482.6 50.8 12 181.39
    12 675 123.9 451 219 328.2 13 571.5 54.0 16 286.48
    14 750 133.4 495 241 360.2 13 635.0 60.3 16 384.80
    16 825 146.1 552 260 411.2 13 704.8 66.7 16 492.31
    18 915 162.0 597 276 462.3 13 774.7 73.0 16 638.30
    20 985 177.8 641 292 514.4 13 831.8 79.4 16 766.56
    24 1170 203.2 762 330 616.0 13 990.6 92.1 16 1227.85

  • ASME/ANSI B16.5 Class 2500 Lap Joint Flanges
    Nominal Pipe Size  Outside Diameter of Flange Thickness of Lap Joint Min. Diameter of Hub Length Through Hub Bore Corner Radius of Bore of Lapped Flange Diameter of Bolt Circle Diameter of Bolt Holes Number of Bolts Approxi-mate Weight kgs
    NPS O tf X Y B r W I n
    1/2 135 30.2 43 40 22.9 3 88.9 22.2 4 3.01
    3/4 140 31.8 51 43 28.2 3 95.2 22.2 4 3.43
    1 160 35.0 57 48 34.9 3 108.0 25.4 4 4.87
    1 1/4 185 38.1 73 52 43.7 5 130.2 28.6 4 7.12
    1 1/2 205 44.5 79 60 50.0 6 146.0 31.8 4 10.10
    2 235 50.9 95 70 62.5 8 171.4 28.6 8 14.67
    2 1/2 265 57.2 114 79 75.4 8 196.8 31.8 8 20.91
    3 305 66.7 133 92 91.4 10 228.6 34.9 8 32.29
    4 355 76.2 165 108 116.8 11 273.0 41.3 8 49.09
    5 420 92.1 203 130 144.4 11 323.8 47.6 8 82.84
    6 485 108.0 235 152 171.4 13 368.3 54.0 8 128.65
    8 550 127.0 305 178 222.2 13 438.2 54.0 12 184.69
    10 675 165.1 375 229 277.4 13 539.8 66.7 12 356.50
    12 760 184.2 441 254 328.2 13 619.1 73.0 12 498.67

Standards:  ANSI, MSS, API, AWWA, DIN, JIS, BS and GB.

Process:  free forging, plate cutting.

Sizes range:  1/2″ to 64″ (and much larger size according to customers’ demands).

Printing:  Carbon steel and alloy steel with yellow print, black print, oil or zinc.

Packing:  in wooden cases, wooden pallets or as per customers’ special requirement, Standard Export Package.

* We can also manufacture special application flanges and forgings that customers require.

Lap joint flange’s draws :
flg lj det - How to get high quality lap joint flanges?
1. Lap Joint flange 2. Stub End 3. Butt weld 4. Pipe or Fitting

What Is the Lap Joint Flange with Welding Neck Collar?

Lap joint flanges can be mainly divided into four types: loose plate steel pipe flanges with weld-on collar, loose plate steel pipe flanges with welding neck collar, lap joint flanges with welding neck collar and lap joint flanges with welding neck collar.
The roles of lap joint flanges
Lap joint flanges mainly play the roles of connecting equipment or flanges such as the flanges on the water pumps or the valves. Lap joint flanges have the following two obvious features.
1. Lap joint flanges are easy to be installed. For example, if the equipment has not arrived at the construction site, but the pipelines have already been arranged, the lap joint flanges can be used under this condition. When the equipment arrives, it is simple to install the lap joint flanges on the equipment because the lap joint flanges are flexible and movable, and the problem that the bolt can not fit the blot hole will never happen.
2. It is convenient to change the material of the pipelines if the lap joint flanges are adopted, for example, changing the stainless steel pipes to the carbon steel pipes. When the stainless steel pipes have to be changed to the carbon steel pipes in engineering, in order to save the costs for the construction, the flanges can be made of stainless steel while the welding necks can be made of carbon steel, which will form a perfect transformation. Actually, such a case usually happens in engineering for the purpose of saving materials and money.
Loose plate flanges with welding neck collar
Loose plate flanges with welding neck collar consist of the slip-on flanges and the butt welding nozzles. The appearance of the butt welding nozzle almost the same as the welding neck flange’s, but the outer diameter of the butt welding nozzle is smaller than that of the welding neck flange. The butt welding nozzle does not have the bolt hole so as to make itself easily welded to the pipes and make the slip-on flanges flexible and movable. The slip-on flanges can always be connected with the pipes no matter what conditions the bolt hole are under.
The manufacturing standard of loose plate flanges with welding neck collar:
1. GB/T9120-2010
2. JB/T84-2015
3. ISO 7005-1-2011
4. BS 4504-3.1
5. DIN EN 1092-1-2008

Dimensional Tolerances of Lap Joint Flanges ASME B16.5

20180118105733 82057 - How to get high quality lap joint flanges?

Lap joint flange drawing

Dimensions are in millimeters unless otherwise indicated.

OUTSIDE DIAMETER

≤ 24 = 1.6 mm
> 24 = ± 3.2 mm

INSIDE DIAMETER

 10 = ± 0.8 mm
 12 = + 1.6 mm / – 0 mm

DIAMETER OF CONTACT FACE

1.6 mm Raised Face = ± 0.8 mm
6.35 mm Raised Face
Tongue & Groove / Male-Female = ± 0.4 mm

DRILLING

Bolt Circle = 1.6 mm
Bolt Hole Spacing = ± 0.8 mm
Eccentricity of Bolt Circle with Respect to Facing
 2½ = 0.8 mm max.
 3 = 1.6 mm max.

DIAMETER OF COUNTERBORE

Same as for Inside Diameter

OUTSIDE DIAMETER OF HUB

 12 = + 2.4 mm / – 1.6 mm
 14 = ± 3.2 mm

THICKNESS

 18 = + 3.2 mm / – 0
 20 = + 4.8 mm / – 0

LENGTH THRU HUB

 18 = + 3.2 mm / – 0.8 mm
 20 = + 4.8 mm / – 1.6 mm

Materials used:
  • Super duplex stainless steel & Duplex stainless steel
  • Stainless steel
  • Alloy steel, etc.

Key Features:

  • Recommended in applications that require frequent dismantling of the flanges and pipe.
  • Used with a matching stub-end insert.
  • Can rotate to allow for an easy alignment of bolt holes.
  • Not recommended in extreme or high-pressure temperature applications.

Advantages of Lap Joint Flanges:
Lap Joint flanges have certain special advantages over other flanges. These are as follows:

  • Lap Joint flanges have the freedom to swivel around the pipe. This facilitates the lining up of opposing flange bolt holes.
  • Lack of contact with the fluid inside the pipe leads to the greater durability of these flanges.
  • In piping systems which corrode or erode quickly, the lap joint flanges may be salvaged for re-use.
  • The pressure-holding capacity of lap joint flanges is little. But it is better than that of slip-on flanges.
  • The Lap Joint works as a backing ring on the stub.
  • The main advantage of lap joint flange is that the bolt holes can be aligned with the matching flange after the welds have been completed.
  • They allow rotational alignment capability.

When to use lap joint flange?

lap joint flange 2 - How to get high quality lap joint flanges?

1. Because of the structure of a Lap joing flange,  it can swivel around the stub end and pipe lining.    When the piping system is assembe and disassemble frequently,  it is better to use a Lap joint flange. It means the flange can work even the two flanges bolt holes are misalignment.
2. In a corrosive situation, the flange joints need to be exchange very soon. To a lap joint flange, only the stub end is touch with the pipe and fluid, the backing flange no need to touch it .  It means you could only replace the stub end , no need to replace the backing flange, so the lap joint flange can decrease the cost of the piping systems.
3. The backing flange and the stub end is seperated, so we can use two different materials for the two pieces. It can work for more complicated application. 

Lap Joint Flange Uses
Economy
Because a lap joint flange has a two piece configuration, it offers a way to cut cost when piping systems requires a high cost alloy for all “wetted” parts to reduce corrosion. In this situation, it is only required for the stub-end to be can be made of the higher cost corrosion-resistant material, where the flange itself can be the produced from lower cost steel.

Ease of Work
By using lap joint flanges, work can be simplified in situations that require frequent and rapid disassemble and assembly during the operation of a plant. The ability to spin that backing flange compensates for misalignment of the bolt holes during assembly.

Physical Features
Flange
1.  The backside, has a slight shoulder that is square cut at the center or pipe hole
2.  The front side has a flat face with a filleted (rounded) center hole to match the filleted back face of the stub end. Here the stub end will wrap tightly around the center hole of the flange.

20171223103021 14795 - How to get high quality lap joint flanges?

Stub End
1.  Shaped like a short piece of pipe with a weld bevel on one. This portion of the stub end is also called the sleeve.
2.  Narrow shoulder on the flange facing end called is the hub. The back face of the hub has a rounded transition (or inside fillet) that joins the hub to the sleeve.

20171223103056 30510 - How to get high quality lap joint flanges?

Buying tips
Certain factors to consider are as follows:

  • Size
  • Design Standard
  • Material
  • Normal Pressure
  • Face Type
  • Durability
  • Corrosion Resistant

From: youtube.com

Source: China Lap Joint Flange Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.steeljrv.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

If you want to have more information about the article or you want to share your opinion with us, contact us at sales@steeljrv.com

Please notice that you might be interested in the other technical articles we’ve published:

  • What are reducing flanges

  • When to use slip on flanges

  • HOW TO GET HIGH QUALITY BLIND FLANGES

  • What are Spectacle Flanges

  • How to test pipe fitting

  • HOW TO GET HIGH QUALITY STAINLESS STEEL PIPES

  • Development trend of high pressure pipe fittings

  • How to get high quality flanges

  • How to get high quality pipe fittings

  • What are Specialty Flanges

  • How to get high quality alloy steel pipes

  • HOW TO GET HIGH QUALITY STEEL PIPES

  • HOW TO GET HIGH QUALITY PIPE ELBOW

  • What are Lap Joint Flanges

  • What are Blind Flanges

  • WHEN TO USE A SPECTACLE BLIND FLANGE

  • HOW TO GET HIGH QUALITY BOILER TUBES

  • HOW TO GET HIGH QUALITY PIPE CAP

  • HOW TO GET HIGH QUALITY PIPE BEND

  • The difference between pipe nipple and pipe coupling

  • What is a Reducing Flange

  • What is a pipe reducer

  • HOW TO GET HIGH QUALITY PIPE OLETS

  • HOW TO GET HIGH QUALITY ORIFICE FLANGES

References:

  • https://www.extreme-bolt.com/blog/when-is-it-best-to-use-a-lap-joint-flange/
  • https://www.yaang.com
  • https://www.youtube.com

Related News

العربيةБългарски简体中文繁體中文DanskNederlandsEnglishFrançaisDeutschBahasa IndonesiaItaliano日本語한국어LatinPortuguêsРусскийEspañolதமிழ்ไทยTürkçe