How to get high quality pipe fittings?

What is a pipe fitting?

A pipe fitting is used in Piping system to join multiple pipes of same size or different sizes, to regulate the flow or to measure the flow. Such as couplings, unions, nipples, tees, and elbows for connecting lengths of pipes. 

Pipe fitting or pipefitting is the occupation of installing or repairing piping or tubing systems that convey liquid, gas, and occasionally solid materials. This work involves selecting and preparing pipe or tubing, joining it together by various means, and the location and repair of leaks.

Pipe fitting work is done in many different settings: HVAC, manufacturing, hydraulics, refineries, nuclear-powered supercarriers and fast-attack submarines, computer chip fabrication plants, power plant construction, and other steam systems. Pipe fitters (sometimes called simply “fitters”) are represented in the USA and Canada by the United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the United States and Canada.
Pipefitters work with a variety of pipe and tubing materials including several types of steel, copper, iron, aluminium, and plastic. Pipe fitting is not plumbing; the two are related but separate trades. Pipe fitters who specialize in fire prevention are called Sprinklerfitters, another related, but separate trade.

Materials, techniques, and usages vary from country to country as different nations have different standards to install pipe.

Pipe fittings connect to pipes in one of two ways: by threads or by slip fit. Metal pipes are threaded, while plastic pipe can be threaded or slip fit. As the names indicate, threaded pipes screw together to connect, while slip fit pipes use sleeves that slip into one another. They are organized by male and female connectors as follows:

Male threaded: Threads are exterior, made to screw into the inside of a larger diameter pipe end with internal threading.
Female threaded: Threads are interior, made to receive male threaded fittings.
Male slip fit: No threads, made to slip into a slightly larger female sleeve.
Female slip fit: No threads, made to receive a narrower male slip fit.
The ends of pipe fittings are slightly larger than the rest of the pipe to accommodate connections without narrowing the inner diameter (ID) of the pipe. This keeps flow consistent. They are identified by pipe material, inner and outer diameter of the pipe, and the type of fitting — threaded or slip, male or female.
When purchasing pipe fittings, be sure to note that a fitting can have two different connector types. One end of the fitting might be male threaded, the other female threaded. In the case of plastic fittings, one end might be male slip while the other end is threaded. Fittings might also have matching ends — a variance to accommodate any requirement.

Types of pipe fittings

There are different parameters to be considered before purchasing and that is the size of the pipe fittings in diameter, thickness of the wall to be according to the pressure in the pipes, materials, shape and many others.

Pipe elbows

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Steel elbow is used to be installed between two lengths of pipe or tube allowing a change of direction,usually these carbon steel elbows distinguished by connection ends.

Long Radius (LR) Elbow is also called LR elbow – means the radius is 1.5 times the pipe diameter

  • L/R 45°Elbow: Long radius 45 degree elbow changes the direction by 45 degrees.
  • L/R 90°Elbow: Long radius 90 degree elbow changes the direction by 90 degrees.
  • L/R 180°Elbow: Long Radius 180 degree return bend allows complete reversal of flow.

Short Radius (SR) Elbow is also called SR elbow, – means the radius is 1.0 times the pipe diameter

  • Short radiu 45°Elbow: Short radius 45° elbow changes the direction by 45 degrees.
  • Short radius 90°Elbow: Short Radius 90° elbow is same as LR90 except for the measurement between end of elbow to center line is 1 x NPS.
  • Short radius 180° Elbow: Short Radius 180° return bend allows complete reversal of flow

Pipe bend

Pipe bend can be made of variety materials,like carbon steel,alloy steel,stainless steel,low temperature steel or high performance steel,etc.

It advantage is can matach long distance transition requirements,so it is commonly that bends dimension according to customer design. usually,the bends consist of 3D,5D,7D even 12D series.

Pipe Tees

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We can provide seamless tube tees and welding tube tees, which can also be divided into straight tees and reducing tees.Usually, the pipe tees have the same inlet and oulet sizes.

Reducing tee is a type of pipe fitting in which the branch port size is smaller than the ports of the run.

Common types of pipe tee

A pipe tee is a type of fitting that has a T shape and is used to join two or more plumbing pipes.

  • Equre tee (or straight tee), means the branch diameter of this tee is same with the main pipe (Run pipe) diameter of this tee.
  • Reducing tee is a type of pipe fitting in which the branch port size is smaller than the ports of the run.
  • Barred tee is used in pipelines that are pigged.
  • Lateral tee has a 45 degree branch from a pipeline.
  • Pipe cross is a fitting that used in the place where four pipes meet with the same diameter include:
    • Reducing cross used for connecting four pipes, the main pipes with the same size, but the dimensions of the branch diameter is smaller than the main pipes.
    • Equal cross in the place where four pipes meet with the same diameter.
  • Forged Tee Fittings are pipe fittings that be formed mainly by forging.
Materials

Carbon steel: ASTM/ASME A234 WPB-WPC
Alloy steel: ASTM/ASME A234 WP 1-WP 12-WP 11-WP 22-WP 5-WP 91-WP 911 
Stainless steel: ASTM/ASME A403 WP 304-304L-304H-304LN-304N 

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ASTM/ASME A403 WP 316-316L-316H-316LN-316N-316Ti 

ASTM/ASME A403 WP 321-321H ASTM/ASME A403 WP 347-347H
Low temperature steel: ASTM/ASME A402 WPL 3-WPL 6 
High performance steel: ASTM/ASME A860 WPHY 42-46-52-60-65-70

Size range: 1/2 to 72 inches
Pressure: SCH5 to SCH160

Equre tee (or straight tee), means the branch diameter of this tee is same with the main pipe (Run pipe) diameter of this tee.

ASME B16.9 Butt weld Equal Tee Dimensions

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Nominal Pipe Size Outside diameter
at bevel
Center-to-End
Run (C) Outlet(M)
1/2″ 21.3 25 25
3/4″ 26.7 29 29
1″ 33.4 38 38
1 1/4″ 42.2 48 48
1 1/2″ 48.3 57 57
2″ 60.3 64 64
2 1/2″ 73.0 76 76
3″ 88.9 86 86
3 1/2″ 101.6 95 95
4″ 114.3 105 105
5″ 141.3 124 124
6″ 168.3 143 143
8″ 219.1 178 178
10″ 273.0 216 216
12″ 323.8 254 254
14″ 355.6 279 279
16″ 406.4 305 305
18″ 457.0 343 343
20″ 508.0 381 381
22″ 559.0 419 419
24″ 610.0 432 432

The dimensions are in millimeters

Source : ASME B16.9 – 2007

Pipe cross

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A pipe cross is a kind of pipe fitting. It is used in the place where four pipes meet together. The pipe cross may have one inlet and three outlets, or there inlets and one outlet. The diameter of the outlet and inlet can be the same and can also be different. That is to say, straight cross and reducing cross are both availabe.

Types of pipe cross, corss fittings

A cross fitting allows four direction transition in pipeline fields. Let us know more about pipe crosss under the following heads:

Reducing cross

The reducing cross also is called unequal pipe cross , it is the pipe cross which the four branch ends are not in the same diameters.

Equal cross

The equal cross is one kind of the pipe cross, just like a equal tee, the equal cross means all the 4 ends of the cross are in same diameter.

Saddle previously

Saddle previously is the ventilation ducts ‘crotch tee’, its shaped like pants, there Equal and unequal diameter, the formal name is “tube tapered pants tee.” There is no standard size, to be based on three tube spacing center line of the front and graphic design draw graphics, Lofting produced, lofting a certain degree of difficulty.Sheet metal is engaging, steel welding.

Features of Pipe cross:
  • There are three female openings in a T shaped pipe cross.
  • There are straight pipe crosss which have the same size openings.
  • Reducing pipe crosss have one opening of different size and two openings of the same size.
  • There are sanitary pipe crosss which are used in waste lines. These kind of pipe crosss have a curved branch which is designed for a clean out plug. They are used to prevent obstruction of waste.
  • A cross pipe cross has four equal sized female openings.
  • A wing pipe cross has lugs to fasten the fitting to a wall or stud.
  • A compression pipe cross uses compression fittings on two or more ends.
  • A test pipe cross has a threaded opening. This opening is used in conjunction with a threaded plug for a clean-out opening on a drain pipe.

Pipe cross & Crosses size

20171214232318 56297 - How to get high quality pipe fittings?Pipe cross, LT, Lateral cross , RT, Reducing cross, cross fittings accord to ANSI, ISO, JIS and DIN Standards, Measures 1/2 to 56 Inches.

  • Size range: 1/2 to 20 inches
  • Types: Straight cross, Reducing cross, Y-type
  • Pressure: SCH5 to SCH160
  • Standard: ANSI B16.9/B16.28, MSS SP-43/SP-75

The fitting not only played a role in conection the cossing pipeline but also can control the volume by designed with different dimension of cross ends,sometimes we also adopt rib to reinforce the mechanical property when face hard woeking conditions.

Pattern
Weld
Seamless

Nominal size

1/2”-48” (DN15-DN1200)

1/2”-20” (DN15-DN500)

Wall thickness

2~100mm

2~50mm

Bend radius

SCH5S-SCH160 ,XXS

SCH5-SCH160

Type

cross/reducing cross

cross/reducing cross

Materials
  • Carbon scrossl: ASTM/ASME A234 WPB-WPC
  • Alloy scrossl: ASTM/ASME A234 WP 1-WP 12-WP 11-WP 22-WP 5-WP 91-WP 911
  • Stainless scrossl: ASTM/ASME A403 WP 304-304L-304H-304LN-304N
  • ASTM/ASME A403 WP 316-316L-316H-316LN-316N-316Ti
  • ASTM/ASME A403 WP 321-321H ASTM/ASME A403 WP 347-347H
  • Low temperature scrossl: ASTM/ASME A402 WPL 3-WPL 6
  • High performance scrossl: ASTM/ASME A860 WPHY 42-46-52-60-65-70
Buying Tips of pipe cross:
What should buyers consider for bulk purchase of pipe cross?
  • Type of pipe cross—whether welded or seamless
  • Standard
  • Size and dimension
  • Wall thickness
  • Material of construction
  • Durability and Economical
  • High pressure and temperature resistance
  • Corrosion resistance etc.

Applications of pipe cross:

Pipe crosss are widely used in various commercial and industrial applications. Industrial applications include:

  • Chemical processing
  • Petroleum
  • Pulp/paper
  • Refining
  • Textile
  • Waste treatment, Marine
  • Utilities/power generation
  • Industrial equipment
  • Automotive
  • Gas compression and distribution industries
  • Pipe crosss are also recommended for industrial plant fluid power systems.

End caps

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End Cap, Carbon Steel cap, Stainless Steel Caps, ANSI, ISO, JIS and DIN Standards, Measures 1/2 to 56 Inches.

Based on different materials, pipe caps include carbon steel cap, stainless steel cap, and alloy steel cap etc.

Pipe Cap are used for connecting pipes of different diameters and find wide applications in various chemicals, construction industries, paper, cement & ship builders.

Size range:

Pipe caps are widely well-known for the utmost output and outstanding results that it gives.

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  • Out diameter: 1/2″-60″ DN15-DN1500 
  • Wall Thickness: sch10-80s
  • Pressure: SCH5 to SCH160v
  • Max. wall thickness: 200mm
Material:

Pipe Cap manufactured using superior grade raw materials.

  • Carbon steel end caps
  • Stainless steel end caps
  • ASTM/ASME A234 WPB
  • ANSI B16.9 / 16.28
  • Pipe caps according to DIN 2617
  • DIN 28011
    • End caps 18″ API 5L X46 – DIN28011
    • End caps 22″ API 5L X46 – DIN28011
    • End caps 48″ API 5L X46 – DIN28011
    • Torispherical head according to DIN 28011
Surface treatment:
  • Transparent oil, rust-proof black oil or hot galvanized.
  • Special design available All the production process are made according to ISO9001:2000 strictly.
  • Based on different materials, pipe caps include carbon steel cap, stainless steel cap, and alloy steel cap etc.
  • Depending on their construction, pipe caps contain threaded cap, tapered cap and anti-roll cap etc.
Common Shapes:

Pipe caps can be in various shapes.

  • Vessel heads: DISHED PLATES, HEADS, TORISPHERICAL HEADS, CAPS
  • Large size end caps
  • Socket Pipe cap
Advantages
  • Reasonable price with excellent quality
  • Abundant stock and prompt delivery
  • Rich supply and export experience, sincere service
  • Reliable forwarder, 2-hour away from port.

Bending, squeezing, pressing, forging, machining and more

Pipe reducer

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Pipe reducer are tube fittings that are widely used in a number of industries in order to providing greatest connection flexibility in connecting fractional tubes in various installations.

A reducer is the component in a pipeline that reduces the pipe size from a larger to a smaller bore (inner diameter).

The length of the reduction is usually equal to the average of the larger and smaller pipe diameters. There are two main types of reducer: concentric and eccentric reducers.20171214232809 82170 - How to get high quality pipe fittings? 

A reducer can be used either as nozzle or as diffuser depending on the mach number of the flow.

Concentric reducer

Concentric reducer is a kind of fitting that be used for reducing piping size.

Eccentric reducer

Butt weld Eccentric Reducers are used for connecting pipes of different diameters and find wide applications in various chemicals, construction industries, paper, cement & ship builders.

Stub end

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Stub Ends are fittings used in place of welded flanges where rotating back up flanges are desired. They are also called Lap Joints and Vanstone Flared Laps. A rotating back up flange seats itself against the back surface of the Stub End.

The Stub End is available with us in different specifications, which find applications in a piping system to allow quick disconnection of the particular section involved.

Stub End is the fitting that be used in place of welded flanges where rotating back up flanges are desired. 
They are also called Lap Joints and Vanstone Flared Laps.

Stainless stub end

Stainless Steel Stub End such as Stainless Steel Stub Ends ASTM A403, Stainless Steel Stub End 304L, Stainless Steel Stub End 316L, Stainless Steel Stub End 317

Carbon steel Stub end

Our high quality stub ends (Butt weld fittings ) are tested and verified for durability, accuracy and precision.

Lap joint stub end

The Lap joint stub end is the fittings that are used in place of welded flanges when the support of rotating back up flanges is required.

Manufacturing standards of stub end:
  • ASTM ASME A/SA 403
  • MSS SP43 & SP75 ANSI B16. 9
  • ANSI B16. 28 ASTM A815 ASTM B363 B366
  • DIN2605 DIN2615 DIN2616 DIN2617
  • GB12459GB13401
  • JIS2313
Specifications:
  • Grades: ASME / ASTM SA / A234
  • Material:
  • Stainless Steel,316/316L Stainless Steel, 304/304L Stainless Steel and Chrome-moly
  • Carbon steel
Technical Specifications:
  • Thicknesses are based on ASME B16.48 specifications or the products can be manufactured to customer specifications.
  • Standard surface finish is 125-250 RMS serrated finish.
  • Other finishes available upon request.
  • c/w a standard shop primer on carbon steel products for rust inhibitor purposes.
  • Size: Available in all sizes and thickness

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Usage:

Petroleum, Chemical, Power, Gas, Metallurgy, Ship-building, Construction, ect.

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Using stub ends allows sections of the line to be opened for cleaning, inspection, or quick replacement etc, without the need to re-weld.

Specifications:

  • Grades: ASME / ASTM SA / A234
  • Material: Stainless Steel
  • Size: Available in all sizes and thickness

Pipe Coupling

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Pipe Coupling is used for fluid conduits in which each end portion of two tubes to be connected is provided with a swaged-on adapter carrying the necessary means to connect or disconnect the tubes without disturbing the swaged-on adapter.

Our range of coupling fittings are available in aluminium, steel and bronze.

Pipe couplings are highly demanded in the pipe fitting market. Pipe couplings are fittings that help to extend or terminate pipe runs. These fittings are also used to change pipe size. Couplings extend a run by joining two lengths of pipe. They are known as reduced coupling if they are used to connect pipes of different sizes. Couplings are also known as repair couplings. These couplings are without stops or ridges and they can be fixed anywhere along the pipe length for preventing leak of any kind. 

Material: ASTM A105, F304, F316, F304L, F316L, A182, F11, F22, and F91 
Pressure: 2000LBS, 3000LBS, 6000LBS, 9000LBS 
Size: from 1/4 to 4 inches 
Standard: ANSI B16.9/B16.28 and MSS SP-43/SP-75 
Connection ends: butt welded, threaded 
Thread types: NU, EU, STC, LTC and BTC
Surface treatment:Shot blasted, rust-proof black oil

Standards of Pipe Fittings

Some of the standards that apply to buttwelded fittings are listed below. Many organizations such as ASME, ASTM, ISO, MSS, etc. have very well developed standards and specifications for buttwelded fittings. It is always up to the designer to ensure that they are following the applicable standard and company specification, if available, during the design process.

Types of pipe fitting standards:

Some widely used pipe fitting standards are as follows:

ASME: 
American Society for Mechanical Engineers

This is one of the reputed organizations in the world developing codes and standards.

The schedule number for pipe fitting starts from ASME/ANSI B16. The various classifications of ASME/ANSI B16 standards for different pipe fittings are as follows:

  • ASME/ANSI B16.1 – 1998 – Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
  • ASME/ANSI B16.3 – 1998 – Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings
  • ASME/ANSI B16.4 – 1998 – Cast Iron Threaded Fittings
  • ASME/ANSI B16.5 – 1996 – Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
  • ASME/ANSI B16.11 – 2001 – Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded
  • ASME/ANSI B16.14 – 1991 – Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings and Locknuts with Pipe Threads
  • ASME/ANSI B16.15 – 1985 (R1994) – Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings
  • ASME/ANSI B16.25 – 1997 – Buttwelding Ends
  • ASME/ANSI B16.36 – 1996 – Orifice Flanges etc.

ASTM International:
American Society for Testing and Materials

This is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world. It was originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

  • ASTM A105 / A105M – Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications
  • ASTM A234 / A234M – Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service
  • ASTM A403 / A403M – Specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
  • ASTM A420 / A420M – Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low-Temperature Service

AWWA
American Water Works Association

AWWA About – Established in 1881, the American Water Works Association is the largest nonprofit, scientific and educational association dedicated to managing and treating water, the world’s most important resource.

  • AWWA C110 – Ductile-Iron and Gray-Iron Fittings, 3 Inch Through 48 Inch (75 mm Through 1200 mm), for Water and Other Liquids
  • AWWA C208 – Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings

ANSI: 
The American National Standards Institute

The American National Standards Institute
ANSI is a private, non-profit organization. Its main function is to administer and coordinate the U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system. It provides a forum for development of American national standards. ANSI assigns “schedule numbers”. These numbers classify wall thicknesses for different pressure uses.

MSS STANDARDS 
Manufacturers Standardization Society

The Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS) of the Valve and Fittings Industry is a non-profit technical association organized for development and improvement of industry, national and international codes and standards for: Valves, Valve Actuators, Valve Modification, Pipe Fittings, Pipe Hangers, Pipe Supports, Flanges and Associated Seals

  • MSS SP-43 – Wrought Stainless Steel Butt-Welding Fittings Including Reference to Other Corrosion Resistant Materials
  • MSS SP-75 – Specifications for High Test Wrought Buttwelding Fittings
  • MSS SP-73 – Brazing Joints for Copper and Copper Alloy Pressure Fittings
  • MSS SP-83 – Class 3000 Steel Pipe Unions, Socket-Welding and Threaded
  • MSS SP-97 – Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings — Socket Welding, Threaded, and Buttwelding Ends
  • MSS SP-106 – Cast Copper Alloy Flanges and Flanged Fittings Class 125,150, and 300
  • MSS SP-119 – Factory-Made Wrought Belled End Socket Welding Fittings

Difference between “Standard” and “Codes”:

Piping codes imply the requirements of design, fabrication, use of materials, tests and inspection of various pipe and piping system. It has a limited jurisdiction defined by the code. On the other hand, piping standards imply application design and construction rules and requirements for pipe fittings like adapters, flanges, sleeves, elbows, union, tees, valves etc. Like a code, it also has a limited scope defined by the standard.

Factors affecting standards:

“Standards” on pipe fittings are based on certain factors like as follows:

  • Pressure-temperature ratings
  • Size
  • Design
  • Coatings
  • Materials
  • Marking
  • End connections
  • Dimensions and tolerances
  • Threading
  • Pattern taper etc.

BSP: 
British Standard Pipe

BSP is the U.K. standard for pipe fittings. This refers to a family of standard screw thread types for interconnecting and sealing pipe ends by mating an external (male) with an internal (female) thread. This has been adopted internationally. It is also known as British Standard Pipe Taper threads (BSPT )or British Standard Pipe Parallel (Straight) threads (BSPP ). While the BSPT achieves pressure tight joints by the threads alone, the BSPP requires a sealing ring.

JIS: 
Japanese Industrial Standards

This is the Japanese industrial standards or the standards used for industrial activities in Japan for pipe, tube and fittings and published through Japanese Standards Associations.

NPT:
National Pipe Thread

National Pipe Thread is a U.S. standard straight (NPS) threads or for tapered (NPT) threads. This is the most popular US standard for pipe fittings. NPT fittings are based on the internal diameter (ID) of the pipe fitting.

BOLTS & NUTS

  • A193 = This specification covers alloy and stainless steel bolting material for pressure vessels, Valves, flanges, and fittings for high temperature or high pressure service, or other special purpose applications.
  • A320 = Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service.
  • A194 = Standard specification for nuts in many different material types.

AN:
Here, “A” stands for Army and “N” stands for Navy

The AN standard was originally designed for the U.S. Military. Whenever, a pipe fitting is AN fittings, it means that the fittings are measured on the outside diameter of the fittings, that is, in 1/16 inch increments. For example, an AN 4 fitting means a fitting with an external diameter of approximately 4/16″ or ¼”. It is to be noted that approximation is important because AN external diameter is not a direct fit with an equivalent NPT thread.

Dash (-) size

Dash size is the standard used to refer to the inside diameter of a hose. This indicates the size by a two digit number which represents the relative ID in sixteenths of an inch. This is also used interchangeably with AN fittings. For example, a Dash “8” fitting means an AN 8 fitting.

ISO: 
International Organization for Standardization

ISO is the industrial pipe, tube and fittings standards and specifications from the International Organization for Standardization. ISO standards are numbered. They have format as follows:

“ISO[/IEC] [IS] nnnnn[:yyyy] Title” where

  • nnnnn: standard number
  • yyyy: year published, and
  • Title: describes the subject
A standard hose guide is given below:
Hose Size In Nominal ID Inch Dash Size Standard Dash Size
1/4 3/16 -04
3/8 5/16 -06
1/2 13/32 -08
3/4 5/8 -12
1 7/8 -16
1 ½
1 ¼ 1 1/8 -20

Flanges: Ratings in Classes and Pressure Numbers (PN)

Flange Class 150 300 600 900 1500 2500
Flange Pressure Number, PN 20 50 100 150 250 420

Production process of carbon steel pipe fittings

① Blanking
The pipe materials is used primarily for pipe, process, and bars, the shape of the blank to select the cutting method based on the material properties and product. Blank shape, size and other requirements according to different process requirements.

② Forming (welding)
For all pipe manufacturing process, the steel pipe cross-section is an indispensable process. Due to the forming process of the different products is different, you need a longer length.

③ Heat treatment
The heat treatment process is an important part of the pipe manufacturing. Heat treatment step of heating, insulation and cooling, eliminating the forming process of hardening, residual stress and deformation defects of metal pipe after forming the metal structure, performance of a steel pipe network, restored to the state or its performance in the deformation processing will be improved.

④ Surface treatment
Pipe surface treatment is usually by sandblasting, shot blasting, grinding, pickling method to remove the product surface rust, scratches and other products to achieve a smooth surface to meet the follow-up processing, and inspection requirements.

⑤ Cutting
Cutting pipe, soldering end, structural size, geometric tolerance machining processes. Also includes some pipe cutting, the diameter of processing. The cutting machine is mainly via a dedicated machine or universal; oversized pipe, when the existing machine capacity can not meet the processing requirements, you can also use other methods to complete processing, such as large diameter elbow with gas cutting, grinding method.

⑥ Non-destructive testing
Non-destructive testing is an important process of the possible defects of the test materials and fittings processing. The majority of pipe product standards for the requirements of the non-destructive testing requirements, but requirements are not consistent. In addition to meeting the product standards and ordering requirements, nondestructive testing, more stringent on quality control factory to develop non-destructive testing requirements according to the materials, processes, and internal quality control requirements in order to ensure the quality of manufactured products.

End Beveling of pipe fittings In the behavior, we make beveling after shot blasting, bevel ends are fully machined by advanced equipment Double Beveling Machine ensure the height, length, thickness, O.D. and I.D. are all qualified.

Welding Bevel acc.to ASME / ANSI B16.9 and ASME / ANSI B16.28

Our in-hourse R&D team developed bevel ends equipment are good using in thickness 2mm to 20mm pipe fittings, guarantee high efficiency and high quality.

Send us your technical drawings: yaang.com will supply you with whatever flanges you are looking for. 

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Nominal wall Thickness : t End Preparation
t<5mm (for austenitic alloy steel
t<4mm)
Cut square or slightly chamfer
at manufacturer ‘ s option
5<t<22mm
(4<t<22mm)
Plain Bevel as in sketch ( a ) above
t>22mm Compound Bevel as in sketch ( b ) above
Nominal pipe
DN size
Outside Diameter at Bevel Center to End

D1

D2

C

M

Series A Series B Series A Series B
20×15 26.9 25 21.3 18 29 29
25×20
25×15
33.7
33.7
32
32
26.9
21.3
25
18
38
38
38
38
32×25
32×20
32×15
42.4
42.4
42.4
38
38
38
33.7
26.9
21.3
32
25
18
48
48
48
48
48
48
40×32
40×25
40×20
40×15
48.3
48.3
48.3
48.3
45
45
45
45
42.4
33.7
26.7
21.3
38
32
25
18
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
50×40
50×32
50×25
50×20
60.3
60.3
60.3
60.3
57
57
57
57
48.3
42.4
33.7
26.9
45
38
32
25
64
64
64
64
60
57
51
44
65×50
65×40
65×32
65×25
76.1(73)
76.1(73)
76.1(73)
76.1(73)
76
76
76
76
60.3
48.3
42.4
33.7
57
45
38
32
76
76
76
76
70
67
64
57
80×65
80×50
80×40
80×32
88.9
88.9
88.9
88.9
89
89
89
89
76.1(73)
60.3
48.3
42.4
76
57
45
38
86
86
86
86
83
76
73
70
90×80
90×65
90×50
90×40
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6



88.9
76.1(73)
60.3
48.3



95
95
95
95
92
89
83
79
100×90
100×80
100×65
100×50
100×40
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3

108
108
108
108
101.6
88.9
76.1(73)
60.3
48.3

89
76
57
45
105
105
105
105
105
102
98
95
89
86
125×100
125×90
125×80
125×65
125×50
139.7
139.7
139.7
139.7
133
– 
133
133
133
114.3
101.6
88.9
76.1(73)
60.3
108

89
76
57
124
124
124
124
124
117
114
111
108
105
150×125
150×100
150×90
150×80
150×65
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
159
159 

159
159
139.7
114.3
101.6
88.9
76.1(73)
133
108

89
76
143
143
143
143
143
137
130
127
124
121
200×150
200×125
200×100
200×90
219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1
219
219
219
168.3
139.7
114.3
101.6
159
133
108
178
178
178
178
168
162
156
152
200×200
200×150
200×125
200×100
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273
273
273
273
219.1
168.3
139.7
114.3
219
159
133
108
216
216
216
216
208
194
191
184
300×250
300×200
300×150
323.9
323.9
323.9
325
325
325
273.0
219.1
168.3
273
219
159
254
254
254
241
229
219
300×125 323.9 325 139.7 133 254 216
350×300
350×250
350×200
350×150
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
377
377
377
377
323.9
273.0
219.1
168.3
325
273
219
159
279
279
279
279
270
257
248
238
400×350
400×300
400×250
400×200
400×150
406.4
406.4
406.4
406.4
406.4
426
426
426
426
426
355.6
323.9
273.0
219.1
168.3
377
325
273
219
159
305
305
305
305
305
305
295
283
273
264
450×400
450×350
450×300
450×250
450×200
457.2
457.2
457.2
457.2
457.2
478
478
478
478
478
406.4
355.6
323.9
273.0
219.1
426
377
325
273
219
343
343
343
343
343
330
330
321
308
298
500×450
500×100
500×350
500×300
500×250
500×200
508.0
508.0
508.0
508.0
508.0
508.0
529
529
529
529
529
529
457.2
406.4
355.6
323.9
273.0
219.1
478
426
377
325
273
219
381
381
381
381
381
381
368
356
356
346
333
324
550×500
550×450
550×400
559
559
559


508
457
406


419
419
419
406
394
381
600×550
600×550
600×450
610
610
610

630
630
559
508
457

530
480
432
432
432
432
432
419
650×600
650×550
650×500
660
660
660


610
559
508


495
495
495
483
470
457
700×650
700×600
700×550
711
711
711

720
660
610
559

630
521
521
521
521
508
495
750×700
750×650
750×600
762
762
762


711
660
610


559
559
559
546
546
533
800×750
800×700
800×650
813
813
813

820
762
711
660

720
597
597
597
584
572
572
850×800
850×750
850×700
864
864
864


813
762
711


635
635
635
622
610
597
900×850
900×800
900×750
914
914
914

920
864
813
762

820 
673
673
673
660
648
635
950×900
950×850
950×800
965
965
965


914
864
813


711
711
711
711
698
686
1000×950
1000×900
1000×8500
1016
1016
1016

1020
965
914
864

920 
749
749
749
749
737
724
1000×1000
1050×950
1050×900
1067
1067
1067


1016
965
914


762
762
762
711
711
711
1100×1050
1100×1000
1100×950
1118
1118
1118

1120
1067
1016
965

1020 
813
813
813
762
749
737
1150×1100
1150×1050
1150×1000
1168
1168
1168


1118
1067
1016


851
851
851
800
787
775
1200×1150
1200×1100
1200×1050
1220
1220
1220

1220
1168
1118
1067

1120 
889
889
889
838
838
813
Nominal pipe size Outside Diameter at Bevel Center to End
D C M
DN INCH Series A Series B
15 1/2 21.3 18 25
20 3/4 26.9 25 29
25 1 33.7 32 38
32 11/4 42.4 38 48
40 11/2 48.3 45 57
50 2 60.3 57 64
65 21/2 76.1(73) 76 76
80 3 88.9 89 86
90 31/2 101.6 95
100 4 114.3 108 105
125 5 139.7 133 124
150 6 168.3 159 143
200 8 219.1 219 178
250 10 273.0 273 216
300 12 323.9 325 254
350 14 355.6 377 279
400 16 406.4 426 305
450 18 457.2 478 343
500 20 508.0 529 381
550 22 559 419
600 24 610 630 432
650 26 660 495
700 28 711 720 521
750 30 762 559
800 32 813 820 597
850 34 864 635
900 36 914 920 673
950 38 965 711
1000 40 1016 1020 749
1050 42 1067 762 711
1100 44 1118 1120 813 762
1150 46 1168 851 800
1200 48 1220 1220 889 838

END CONNECTIONS
There are four different type of connections that are used for fittings:

  1. Butt Weld Fittings – Probably the most common type of fitting. They are easily manufactured and are easily installed. Butt weld fittings can be connected directly to each other. This is called fitting make up.
  2. Flanged Fittings – Flanged fittings are piping components where the flange is an integral component of the fitting. These are most often used in water treatment applications or lined piping where welding would be destructive to the liner.
  3. Socket Weld Fittings – These fittings have a socket weld connection on each end. They might be used for smaller diameter piping. These fittings utilize a single fillet weld to join the piping with the fitting.
  4. Threaded Fittings – Threaded fittings are generally four inches and smaller. The reason for this size constraint is the pipe end needs to be threaded with a male type connection and die sizes are unobtainable in the larger diameters.

How are pipe fittings measured?


Pipe fittings are measured by their diameter, wall thickness (known as “schedule”), and shape or configuration. (Fittings are also defined by their material grade and whether they are welded or seamless.)
Diameter refers to outside diameter of a pipe or fitting.
The North American standard is known as Nominal Pipe Size (NPS). The International Standard is known as Diameter Nominal (DN). Pipes and fittings are actually made in similar sizes around the world: they are just labeled differently.
From ½ in to 12 inch “Nominal Pipe Size”, outside diameters are slightly larger than indicated size; inside diameters get smaller as schedules grow.
From 14 in and larger “Nominal Pipe Size”, outside diameters are exactly as indicated size; inside diameters get smaller as schedules grow.
As with other North American standards (inch, foot, yard, mile, …), many pipe standards (diameters up to 12 inch and wall thickness) are based on historical precedents (a toolmaker’s dies during US Civil War) rather than a “scientific” method.

Schedule Numbers

The schedule numbers are used by the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) to denote wall thickness. The schedule numbers encompass all pipe dimensions beginning at NPS 1/8” up NPS 36”. Note that this configuration is only for fittings that match with a particular ANSI schedule number.

Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures.

  • Schedule, often shortened as sch, is a North American standard that refers to wall thickness of a pipe or pipe fitting. Higher schedules mean thicker walls that can resist higher pressures.
  • Pipe standards define these wall thicknesses: SCH 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS and XXS. (S following a number is for stainless steel. Sizes without an S are for carbon steel.)
  • Higher schedules are heavier, require more material and are therefore more costly to make and install.

What does “schedule” mean for pipe fittings?
Schedule, often shortened as SCH, is a North American standard that refers to wall thickness of a pipe or pipe fitting.
What is schedule 40, SCH80?
Higher schedules mean thicker walls that can resist higher pressures.
Pipe standards define these wall thicknesses: SCH 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS and XXS. 
(S following a number is for stainless steel. Sizes without an S are for carbon steel.)
Higher schedules are heavier, require more material and are therefore more costly to make and install.

Why are fittings sometimes thicker and heavier than pipes to which they are connected?
Fittings are sometimes thicker than their connecting pipes to meet performance requirements or due to manufacturing reasons.
Due to fitting geometry, stress is very different when compared to a pipe. Using extra material is often necessary to compensate for such additional stress, especially for tees and tight curve elbows.
Fitting manufacturers may not always stock plates or pipes for all metal grades or sizes. When responding to an order, manufacturers always use the right metal or alloy, but sometimes made with next-higher available plate or pipe size while still respecting specified inside diameters.

Applications and markets of pipe fittings

Fittings are used wherever liquids, gases, chemicals and other fluids are created, processed, transported, or used.

Range of industries is very wide, as shown below:

  • Energy related. 
    Oil and gas industries, including upstream (exploration and production), midstream (transportation by ships, pipeline, rail, trucks; storage and wholesale) and downstream (refining into fuels or chemicals; marketing and distribution). Power plants using fossil or nuclear fuels. Geothermal energy for harnessing heat from the earth.
  • Food and beverage production. 
    From basic ingredients to elaborate desserts. From milk, to juices and other beverages. Cold chain to keep produce fresh, drinks and frozen foods at a set temperature. Desalination plants to transform seawater into drinking water for arid areas and various tropical islands.
  • Pharmaceuticals and biotech production. 
    Medicines and vaccines that treat illnesses and help restore bodies and minds to their top conditions.
  • Semiconductor manufacturing: 
    Microchips that go into all electronics, including smartphones, tablets, computers, television sets, telecom networks …
  • Pulp and paper production. 
    Newsprint, glossy paper, cardboard boxes, books, writing paper
  • Production of construction materials and plastics. From roofing materials, to glassmaking for windows, to copper wiring for transporting electricity, and various plastics throughout houses and office buildings.

Testing for pipe fittings

The most common non distructive tests (NDT) for pipe fittings:

  • Positive material identification (PMI): identification of the chemical composition of the metal used to manufacture the fitting. Uses PMI sensors, including X-ray fluorescence or optical emission spectrometry. This test is frequently executed for high value materials, from duplex steel onwards.
  • Penetrating liquids: this is a low-cost test to detect cracks or abnormal porosity on the surface of the fittings, and is executed by applying a special liquid to its surface.
  • Ferrite content: this test aims to measure the ferrite content for duplex, super duplex and stainless steel materials to make sure the metal is able to achieve the yield strength, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance it is meant to reach. Ferrite content is measured in weld seams by magnetic induction.
  • Hydrostatic test / hydro testing (pressure testing): the fitting gets filled with a test liquid (example water) and a pressure is applied to check if any pressure loss occurs (which would indicate manufacturing defects)
  • Magnetic particles: by means of a magnetic field, possible surface discontinuities or weakness can be identified
  • Macrography: 2 / 3 D pictures of items visible to naked eye.
  • Micrography: pictures at the microscope to see the microgranular structure of the metal and other details not visible at the naked eye
  • Pneumatic pressure: the fitting gets filled with pressurized air; measurements are taken to see if there is pressure loss due to any defects.
  • Radiography: X-rays / gamma rays to detect imperfections leading to possible quality defects

Out of the above tests, the pressure testing is one of the most commonly specified, especially for mission critical fittings in the pipeline.

Source: China Pipe Fittings Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry (www.steeljrv.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

If you want to have more information about the article or you want to share your opinion with us, contact us at sales@steeljrv.com

Please notice that you might be interested in the other technical articles we’ve published:

  • Dimensions of Pipe Fittings

  • Specifications of Steel Pipe Fittings

  • Development trend of high pressure pipe fittings

  • How to test pipe fitting

  • How to Calculate a Pipe Bend

  • Stainless steel pipe bend

References:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pipe_fitting
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piping_and_plumbing_fitting#Common_piping_and_plumbing_fittings
  3. https://www.yaang.com

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