How to install industrial pipeline?
How to install industrial pipeline?Industrial pipeline can be divided into process pipeline and power pipeline. Process pipeline generally refers to the pipeline that directly transports main materials (media) for product production, also known as material pipeline; power pipeline refers to the pipeline that transports power media for production equipment.
Thermal pipeline systemThe thermal pipeline is a pipeline that transports thermal medium such as steam or superheated water.
Over laying form of heat pipeline
Arrangement formThere are two types of layout of thermal pipeline: branch and ring.
Laying mode(1) Overhead laying. It is not affected by the underground water level and convenient for maintenance and inspection during operation. It is suitable for areas with high underground water level, geological unsuitable for underground laying or where a large number of earthwork works must be carried out for underground laying. It is a relatively economic laying form. Its disadvantage is that it occupies a large area and the heat loss of the pipeline is large. According to the height and difference of supports, the overhead laying can be divided into three laying forms: low support, medium support and high support. When laying with low support, the clear height of the pipeline insulation shell from the ground should not be less than 0.3m; when laying with medium support, the distance is generally 2.0-4.0m; when laying with high support, it should not be less than 4.5m. (2) Trench laying. The trench laying can be divided into three kinds of laying forms: passing trench, semi passing trench and non passing trench.
- 1) Laying of passage trench. When the thermal pipeline passes through the road where excavation is not allowed; the number of thermal pipeline is large or the pipeline diameter is large; when the vertical arrangement width of the pipeline on either side of the trench exceeds 1.5m, the passage trench is used for laying. The clear height of the passage trench shall not be less than 1.8m, and the width of the passage shall not be less than 0.7m.
- 2) Laying of half passage trench. When the ground through which the thermal pipeline passes is not allowed to be excavated, and the overhead laying is unreasonable; or when the number of pipelines is large, and the width of the single row of horizontal layout of the pipeline in the trench without passage is limited, the trench with half passage can be used for laying.
- 3) Laying in trench without access. When the number of pipelines is small, the pipeline diameter is small, the distance is short, and the maintenance workload is not large, it is advisable to use the non passing trench laying. In general, the pipeline in the ditch without access is laid horizontally in a single row.
Compensation of thermal expansion1. Natural compensation Natural compensation uses the flexibility of the pipeline geometry to absorb thermal deformation. The natural compensator is divided into L-shaped and Z-shaped. The position of the fixed bracket at both ends of the elbow shall be correctly determined during installation. 2. Manual compensation Artificial compensation is a kind of compensation method which uses the pipeline compensator to absorb the thermal deformation. Square compensator, packing compensator and waveform compensator are commonly used. The packing type compensator, also known as sleeve type compensator, mainly consists of three parts: sleeve with foot, intubation and stuffing box. This kind of compensator is mainly used in the situation of insufficient space when installing square compensator. In the thermal pipeline, the waveform compensator is only used in the case of large pipeline diameter (over 300 mm) and low pressure (0.6 MPa). It has the advantages of compact structure, only axial deformation and small space occupation compared with square compensator. The disadvantages are relatively difficult to manufacture, low pressure resistance, small compensation capacity and large axial thrust.
Installation of thermal pipeline
- (l) The steam branch pipeline shall be connected from the top or side of the main pipeline, and the hot water pipeline shall be connected from the bottom or side of the main pipeline. Drain pipelines of different pressures cannot be connected to the same pipeline.
- (2) When the direct buried pipeline crosses the railway and highway, the distance between the pipeline top and the railway rail surface shall not be less than 1.2m, and the distance between the pipeline top and the road surface shall not be less than 0.7m, and the sleeve shall be added, and the extension of the sleeve beyond the railway subgrade and road edge shall not be less than 1m.
Compressed air piping systemThe natural air is compressed by the air compressor and the air is called compressed air. The production process of compressed air mainly includes air filtration, air compression, air cooling, oil and water removal, air storage and transportation, etc.
- (1) Air compressor. In the general compressed air station, the most widely used is the piston type air compressor. In large-scale compressed air stations, centrifugal or axial-flow air compressors are often used.
- (2) Air filter. Widely used are metal a air filter, filled fiber air filter, automatic oil immersed air filter and bag filter.
- (3) Aftercooler. The commonly used aftercoolers are tubular type, heat sink type, sleeve type, etc.
- (4) Air storage tank.
- (5) Water separator. There are three types of structure commonly used in oil-water separator, namely, annular rotary type, impact rotary type and centrifugal rotary type.
- (6) Air dryer. At present, the common methods of compressed air drying are adsorption and freezing.
Pipeline system of compressed air stationThe pipeline system of the compressed air station includes air pipeline, cooling water pipeline, oil-water purging pipeline, load regulating pipeline and discharge pipeline.
Laying of compressed air pipeline in workshopWorkshop compressed air pipeline is divided into main pipeline, main pipeline and branch riser. The compressed air pipeline in the workshop can be laid by aerial laying, trench laying, underground laying or combination of aerial and underground laying. In order to facilitate management and maintenance, it is necessary to lay overhead along the wall or column. The height of overhead laying shall not hinder the traffic, but shall not be less than 2.5m generally, and the impact on lighting shall be minimized.
Installation of compressed air pipeline
- (1) Generally, welded steel pipeline for low-pressure fluid transmission, galvanized steel pipeline for low-pressure fluid transmission and seamless steel pipeline are selected for compressed air pipeline. If the nominal diameter is less than 50 mm, threaded connection can be adopted, and white lacquer hemp wire or polytetrafluoroethylene raw material tape can be used as filler; if the nominal diameter is greater than 50 mm, welding connection is preferred.
- (2) When the branch pipeline is led out from the main pipeline or main pipeline, it must be led out from the top of the main pipeline or main pipeline.
- (3) The gradient of the pipeline shall be no less than 0.002 according to the air flow direction, and the water collector shall be set at the end of the main pipeline.
- (4) After the installation of compressed air pipeline, strength and tightness test shall be carried out, and the test medium is generally water.
- (5) The air tightness test shall be conducted after the strength and tightness test are qualified, and the test medium is compressed air or oil-free compressed air.
Jacket piping system
Composition of jacketed pipelineThe material is carbon steel or stainless steel, the medium of inner pipeline is process material medium, the medium of outer pipeline is steam, hot water, refrigerant or biphenyl heat carrier, etc. 1. Jacket type There are two types of jacketed pipeline: concealed type and exposed type. 2. Jacket classification Jacketed pipeline is classified according to inner pipeline and outer pipeline. Different types of jacketed pipeline require different fabrication and installation requirements.
Jacket fabricationThe procedure of jacket control is as follows:
- (1) Inspection for pipelines, pipeline accessories, valves and spring supports and hangers.
- (2) Prefabrication of inner pipeline.
- (3) Locating plate settings.
- (4) Prefabrication of outer pipeline.
- (1) The installation of the jacketed pipeline shall be carried out after the relevant equipment, supports and hangers are in place, fixed and leveled, and the installation of the jacketed pipeline shall precede the installation of the adjacent relevant pipelines.
- (2) The valves and instruments installed on the jacketed pipeline shall be tested for strength and sealing, and the commissioning shall be qualified.
- (3) Seamless or pressed butt welding fittings shall be used for internal pipeline fittings of jacketed pipeline, and pressed sectioning pieces can be used for external pipeline.
- (4) The radiographic inspection requirements for jacketed pipeline welds shall be in accordance with the regulations.
- (5) The fillet weld and flange weld of jacketed pipeline shall be inspected by dye test.
- (6) The strength and tightness test of jacketed pipeline is generally carried out by hydraulic pressure, and the test medium is clean water.
- (7) During the air pressure test, oil-free compressed air, nitrogen or other inert gas are generally used as the test medium. The air pressure strength test pressure is 1.15 times of the design pressure; the vacuum pipeline is 0.2MPa. The air pressure tightness test pressure shall be carried out according to the design pressure, and the vacuum pipeline shall not be less than 0.1MPa.
- (8) After the vacuum system passes the tightness test and the linkage test run, the vacuum degree test shall be carried out at the design pressure for 24 hours, and the system pressurization rate shall not be more than 5% as qualified.
- (9) The outer pipeline of biphenyl heat carrier jacket shall be tested with biphenyl, ammonia or compressed air, and pressure test with water is not allowed.
- (10) After the jacketed pipeline is installed to form a system, the internal and external pipelines shall be purged. Any pipelines, equipment, valves, instruments, etc. that cannot participate in purging shall be removed or isolated with blind plates. The inner pipeline shall be purged with dry oil-free compressed air. The steam jacket system is purged with low-pressure steam in the sequence of main pipeline first, then branch pipeline, and finally into the annular gap of the jacket.
Alloy steel and non-ferrous piping system.
Alloy steel pipeline installation.
Steel grade of alloy steel pipeline commonly used in alloy steel pipeline.
Alloy steel pipeline installation.
- (1) Alloy steel pipeline shall be marked with material.
- (2) Alloy steel pipelines shall be cut directly by mechanical method. If there is no steel grade on the cut section of high-pressure alloy steel pipeline, the original steel grade shall be marked again.
- (3) For the welding of alloy steel pipeline, manual argon arc welding shall be adopted for the bottom layer to ensure that the inner wall of the welding pipeline is full. It is smooth and flat, and the upper layers can be formed by manual arc welding. Preheat before welding and heat treatment after welding shall be carried out for alloy steel pipeline; heat treatment after welding shall be carried out immediately after welding; if heat treatment cannot be carried out in time, heat preservation shall be carried out when cooling to 300-350 ℃ after welding.
Stainless steel pipeline installation
Stainless steel classification
- According to the metallographic structure, it can be divided into austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel and martensitic stainless steel; according to the corrosion resistance, it can be divided into atmospheric corrosion resistance, acid alkali corrosion resistance and high temperature resistance stainless steel.
Stainless steel pipeline installation
- (1) The appearance and performance of stainless steel pipelines and fittings must be inspected before installation.
- (2) Stainless steel should be cut by hand saw blade, sawing machine, grinding wheel pipeline cutting machine, lathe and plasma cutting machine.
- (3) The groove of stainless steel pipeline should be made by machine, plasma cutting machine, grinding wheel machine, etc. the heat affected layer on the surface must be polished off and the groove should be kept flat when the groove is processed by plasma cutting machine.
- (4) Generally, manual arc welding and argon arc welding can be used for stainless steel pipeline welding.
- (5) Before welding, the burr, dirt and impurities within 20 mm on both sides of the groove shall be removed, and the non-metallic sheet shall be used to cover or apply white powder within the length range of 40-50 mm from both sides of the weld to prevent the spatter from splashing on the pipeline wall during welding.
- (6) Pipelines with wall thickness greater than 16mm shall be preheated before welding. After welding, pickling and passivation treatment shall be carried out for the weld and its adjacent surface. Acid pickling is usually carried out by acid solution or acid paste. There are two methods for acid pickling, i.e. immersion and brushing.
- (7) Welding flange, welding ring looper flange and flanging looper flange can be used for flange connection. Stainless steel bolts shall be used for stainless steel flange; non-metallic gasket shall be used for stainless steel flange, and the chloride ion content shall not exceed 50ppm.
Installation of iron and titanium alloy pipelines
- (1) The cutting of titanium and titanium alloy pipelines shall adopt mechanical methods (manual saw, sawing machine, lathe, etc.), and the cutting speed shall be at a low speed, so as to avoid hardening of the pipeline surface due to the high temperature generated by high-speed cutting; it is not suitable to use a grinder for cutting; it is not allowed to use flame cutting. The groove shall be machined by mechanical method.
- (2) Titanium and titanium alloy pipelines shall be welded by inert gas shielded welding or vacuum welding. Oxygen acetylene welding or carbon dioxide gas shielded welding shall not be used. Ordinary manual arc welding shall not be used.
- (3) Because titanium and titanium alloy are precious metals, titanium is not used to make flange. Titanium and titanium alloy pipelines can be connected with other metal pipelines by flange. The non-metal gasket used is generally rubber gasket or plastic gasket, and the chloride ion content shall be controlled.
Installation of aluminum and aluminum alloy pipelines
The maximum service temperature of common aluminum and aluminum alloy pipelines shall not exceed 200 ℃For pressure pipelines, the service temperature shall not exceed 160 ℃. Aluminum and aluminum alloy pipelines are widely used in cryogenic engineering.
Installation of aluminum and aluminum alloy pipelines
- (1) The cutting of aluminum and aluminum alloy pipelines can be done by hand saw blade, machine (sawing machine, lathe, etc.) and grinder, and flame cutting is not allowed; the groove should be machined by machine or hand.
- (2) Aluminum and aluminum alloy pipelines are generally connected by welding and flange. Manual TIG welding, oxy acetylene welding and semi-automatic atmosphere arc welding can be used for welding. When the thickness is greater than 5mm, all or part of them shall be preheated to 150-200 ℃ before welding.
- (3) After welding, the weld joint shall be cooled naturally in the air; after cooling, it shall be washed with 60-80 ℃ hot water, and the residue in the weld area shall be cleaned with a brush or copper brush, then washed with 30% nitric acid solution, and then washed with clean water; if there are still white spots in the weld area after drying, it means that there is still solvent not cleaned, and it must be treated again until it is removed.
- (4) Asbestos rope, asbestos board, glass wool and other alkaline materials shall not be used for pipeline insulation, and neutral insulation materials shall be selected.
Copper and copper alloy pipeline installation
There are two kinds of common copper tubes: copper tube and brass tube.Copper and copper alloy are usually used in cryogenic engineering and chemical pipeline as instrument pressure pipeline or transmission pressure liquid pipeline. When the temperature is higher than 250 ℃, they should not be used under pressure.
Copper and copper alloy pipeline installation
- (1) The cut of copper and copper metal pipeline can be cut by hand hacksaw and grinding wheel; because the pipeline wall is thin and the copper pipeline texture is soft, the groove should be made by hand; the thick wall pipeline can be made by mechanical method.
- (2) The connection methods of copper and copper alloy pipelines include threaded connection, welding (socket welding and butt welding), flange connection (welding neck flange, slip on flange, socket weld flange, lap joint flange, threaded flange and blind flange).
- (3) The preheating temperature of the brass pipeline before welding is: the wall thickness is 5-10 mm, 400-500 ℃; when the wall thickness is more than 15 mm, 550 ℃; when the brass pipeline is welded with oxygen acetylene, the preheating width is based on the center of the welding junction, 150 mm on each side; after welding, the weld shall be subject to post weld heat treatment, with the temperature of 400-450 ℃; the softening annealing treatment is 550-600 ℃. Heat treatment shall be carried out in time after welding.
Cast iron pipeline installationCast iron pipeline is connected by socket. Including:
Preparation of connecting materials:
- ① Oil hemp;
- ② Rubber ring;
- ③ Asbestos cement;
- ④ Self stressing cement;
- ⑤ Green lead.
- ① Oil hemp;
- ② Rubber ring;
- ③ Asbestos cement packing;
- ④ Self stress cement packing;
- ⑤ Green lead packing.
Plastic pipeline installation
Common plastic pipelines.Common plastic pipelines include UPVC pipelines, polypropylene pipelines, acid resistant phenolic pipelines, engineering plastics (ABS) pipelines, etc.
Plastic pipeline installation.
- (1) Pipeline inspection.
- (2) Mechanical method is adopted for pipeline cutting, generally manual saw or woodworking saw with coarse tooth saw blade. The groove of pipeline section can be processed with wood filings or mechanical methods.
- (3) The connection methods of plastic pipeline include bonding, welding, flange connection and screw connection.
Rubber lined pipeline installation
Rubber lined tubeThe village rubber pipeline is filled with rubber inside the metal pipeline, which can not only resist corrosion, but also meet the temperature and pressure requirements of the medium in the pipeline. Rubber for lining is usually hard rubber or semi-hard rubber, or hard rubber (semi-hard rubber) and soft rubber composite lining. The use pressure of rubber lined pipeline is generally lower than 0.6MPa, and the vacuum degree is not greater than 0.08mpa (600mmhg). In hard rubber village, the long-term use temperature is 0-65 ℃, short-term heating is allowed to 80 ℃; in semi-hard rubber, soft rubber and hard rubber composite lining, the use temperature is – 25-75 ℃, short-term heating of soft rubber lining is allowed to 100 ℃.
Prefabrication of rubber lined pipeline.
Installation of rubber lined pipeline.
High pressure piping system.
Classification and requirements of high pressure pipeline.
Classification of high pressure pipelineHigh pressure pipeline refers to the pipeline with working pressure of 10MPa < p < 100MPa. For the pipeline with working pressure > 9C MPa and working temperature. 500 ℃ steam pipeline can also be upgraded to high pressure pipeline.
High pressure pipeline can be divided into different grades according to pressure and temperature.
- (1) Classification by pressure: according to the nominal pressure, it can be divided into 12 grades, i.e. 10MPa, 15MPa, 16MPa, 20MPa, 25MPa, 28Mpa, 32Mpa, 42MPa, 50MPa, 63Mpa, 80MPa, 100MPa, of which 16MPa, 20MPa and 32Mpa are the most commonly used.
- (2) According to the working temperature, it can be divided into grade I (- 40-200 ℃), grade II (201-400 ℃) and grade III (> 401 ℃).
Requirements of high pressure pipeline
Inspection of high pressure steel pipeline.The external surface of high-pressure steel pipeline shall be inspected according to the following methods:
- ① Magnetic method shall be adopted for magnetic high-pressure steel pipeline with nominal diameter greater than 6mm.
- ② The non-magnetic high-pressure steel pipeline generally adopts fluorescent method or coloring method.
Inspection of high pressure pipeline thread and valve.
Selection of high pressure pipeline fittings. High pressure pipeline fittings are generally welded, bent and shrunk.
High pressure pipeline processingAlloy steel and stainless steel high pressure pipelines shall be cut mechanically.
Processing of high pressure pipeline bend
- (1) For high pressure pipelines with steel grades of 15MnV, 12CrMo, 1Crl8Ni9Ti and crl8nil3mo2ti, cold bending shall be adopted as far as possible, and heat treatment may not be carried out after cold bending.
- (2) When hot bending is adopted, the mechanical properties will change due to the heating of the pipeline, so relevant regulations shall be followed during hot bending.
Installation of high pressure pipelineMechanical method shall be adopted for weld groove of high-pressure pipeline. V-shaped groove or U-shaped groove shall be selected according to wall thickness and welding method. When the wall thickness is less than 16mm, V-shaped groove shall be adopted; when the wall thickness is 7-34mm, V-shaped groove or U-shaped groove can be adopted. The welding of high-pressure pipeline shall not only meet the requirements of general medium and low-pressure pipeline welding, but also meet the following requirements:
- ① The high-pressure pipelines of 15MnV, 12CrMo, 15CrMo and Cr5Mo shall adopt manual arc welding. When the pipeline wall thickness is not more than 6mm, manual argon arc welding shall be adopted. The enterprises without necessary conditions can adopt oxygen acetylene welding.
- ② 1Crl8Ni9Ti and crl8nil3mo2ti high-pressure pipelines shall be formed by manual argon arc welding and manual arc welding.
- ③ For the welding of carbon steel pipeline and alloy steel pipeline, in order to ensure the smooth formation and good welding quality of the bottom welding surface, manual argon arc is used for bottoming and manual arc welding is used for forming. When fluorine arc welding is used for stainless steel pipeline and titanium pipeline, nitrogen shall be filled for protection to prevent oxidation.
In order to ensure the weld quality, the high-pressure pipeline should be preheated before welding and heat treatment after welding.
The welds of high pressure pipelines shall be subject to visual inspection, X-ray fluoroscopy or ultrasonic flaw detection.
Pipeline test and purging
Hydraulic testClean water shall be used for hydraulic test. When testing austenitic stainless steel pipelines or pipelines with austenitic stainless steel pipelines or equipment, the chloride ion content in the water shall not exceed 25ppm. When combustible liquid medium is used for test, its flash point shall not be lower than 50 ℃. The test pressure of above ground industrial steel pipelines and non-ferrous metal pipelines under internal pressure shall be 1.5 times of the design pressure, and the test pressure of buried steel pipelines shall be 1.5 times of the design pressure, and shall not be less than 0.4MPa. For the natural gas pipeline with design pressure greater than 0.6MPa, the strength and tightness test shall be conducted with water as the medium.
Air pressure test
- (1) The test pressure of steel pipeline and non-ferrous metal in industrial pipeline system under internal pressure shall be 1.15 times of the design pressure, and the test pressure of vacuum pipeline shall be 0.2MPa. When the design pressure of the pipeline is greater than 0.6MPa, the pressure test can be conducted with gas only when it is specified in the design documents or approved by the construction unit.
- (2) Pressure test requirements for outdoor gas pipeline.
Purging and cleaning of piping system
Method of purging and cleaningAfter the pipeline passes the pressure test, it shall be purged or cleaned according to the design or specification requirements. Purging of piping system. The cleaning methods include water washing, air blowing, steam blowing, chemical cleaning and oil cleaning.
General rules for purgingThe purging method shall be determined according to the use requirements of the pipeline, the working medium and the degree of dirt on the inner surface of the pipeline. For liquid or gas pipelines with a nominal diameter greater than or equal to 600mm, manual cleaning shall be adopted; for liquid pipelines with a nominal diameter less than 600mm, water flushing shall be adopted; for gas pipelines with a nominal diameter less than 600mm, air purging shall be adopted. Steam pipelines shall be purged with steam, and non thermal pipelines shall not be purged with steam.
Purging and cleaning of industrial metal pipelines1. Water washing Drinking water, industrial water, clarified water or steam condensate can be selected as the flushing water according to the working medium and material of the pipeline. When flushing the austenitic stainless steel pipeline, the chloride ion content in the water shall not exceed 25ppm. If the pipeline flushing is qualified, the water shall be drained completely, and compressed air or nitrogen can be used for drying if necessary. 2. Air purge When purging the oil-free and water-free pipelines, the gas shall not contain oil or water. 3. Steam purging The steam pipeline shall be purged with large flow steam, and the flow rate shall not be less than 30m / s. 4. Chemical cleaning
- (1) The formulation of the chemical cleaning solution must be identified.
- (2) During chemical cleaning, operators shall wear protective equipment.
- (3) When the qualified chemical cleaning pipeline cannot be put into operation in time, it shall be sealed or nitrogen filled for protection.
BOQ item setting and calculation rules
Water supply and drainage, heating and gas engineeringThe measurement unit of pipeline is “m”, and the work quantity is calculated by the length of the pipeline centerline in the design drawing, excluding the length of valves, pipeline fittings (including the installation of pressure reducer, steam trap, water meter, expansion device, etc.) and various wells; the square compensator is calculated by the pipeline installation work quantity with its length.
Industrial pipelineThe measurement unit of LP carbon steel pipeline and LP carbon steel rolling pipeline is “piece”, which is calculated according to the number of design drawings, and meets the following calculation rules:
- 1) Pipeline fittings include elbow, tee, cross, reducer, stub end, bellows expansion joint on pipeline, pipeline cap, square compensator elbow, primary parts of instrument on pipeline, manufacturing and installation of instrument thermometer expansion pipeline, etc.
- 2) When the diameter of the branch pipeline of the main pipeline is less than 1 / 2 of the main pipeline diameter, the installation quantity of the pipeline fittings will not be calculated; when the diameter of the branch pipeline of the main pipeline is less than 1 / 2 of the main pipeline diameter, the installation quantity of the pipeline fittings will not be calculated; when the diameter of the branch pipeline of the main pipeline is less than 1 / 2 of the main pipeline diameter, the installation quantity of the pipeline fittings will be calculated according to the diameter of the fittings.
- 3) The tee, cross and reducer shall be calculated as per the large pipeline diameter.
- 4) When the pipeline is connected by flange, it shall be installed according to the flange, and the installation of the pipeline itself will not be calculated.
Source: China Stainless Steel Pipeline Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.steeljrv.com)
(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)
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How oil pipelines are built?
Oil pipelines are made from steel or alloy pipes which are usually buried. The oilis moved through the pipelines by pump stations along the pipeline. Natural gas(and similar gaseous fuels) are pressurized into liquids known as Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs). Natural gas pipelines are constructed of carbon steel.
How fast does oil flow through a pipeline?
Oil moves through petroleum pipelines at speeds of 3 to 8 miles per hour. Pipeline transport speed is dependent upon the diameter of the pipe, the pressure under which the oil is being transported, and other factors such as the topography of the terrain and the viscosity of the oil being transported.
How does gas flow through a pipeline?
Natural gas that is transported through interstate pipelines travels at high pressure in the pipeline, at pressures anywhere from 200 to 1500 pounds per square inch (psi). This reduces the volume of the natural gas being transported (by up to 600 times), as well as propelling natural gas through the pipeline.
How deep do they bury pipelines?
Pipelines are generally buried 3 to 4 feet under the ground or deeper.
How wide is a pipeline right of way?
Pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) are strips of land, up to 60 feet in width, in which natural gas pipelines are installed. These pipelines range in size up to 20 inches in diameter and transport natural gas at pressures of up to 875 pounds per square inch (psi).