How to make seamless steel pipe

How to make seamless steel pipe?

The advent of rolling mill technology and its development during the first half of the nineteenth century also heralded in the industrial manufacture of tube and pipe. Initially, rolled strips of sheet were formed into a circular cross section by funnel arrangements or rolls, and then butt or lap welded in the same heat (forge welding process).

Toward the end of the century, various processes became available for the manufacture of seamless tube and pipe, with production volumes rapidly increasing over a relatively short period. In spite of the application of other welding processes, the ongoing development and further improvement of the seamless techniques led to welded pipe being almost completely pushed out of the market, with the result that seamless tube and pipe dominated until the Second World War.

During the subsequent period, the results of research into welding technology led to an upturn in the fortunes of the welded tube, with burgeoning development work ensuing and wide propagation of numerous tube welding processes. Currently, around two thirds of steel tube production in the world are accounted for by welding processes. Of this figure, however, about one quarter takes the form of so-called large-diameter line pipe in size ranges outside those which are economically viable in seamless tube and pipe manufacturing.

Cold drawn seamless steel pipe process

round tube → heating → perforation → Heading → annealing → pickling → oiled (copper) → multi-pass cold drawn (cold rolled) → blank tube → heat treatment → straightening →hydrostatic testing (testing) → mark → storage.Cold drawn seamless steel tube process - How to make seamless steel pipe

The general cold strip mills, volume should go through continuous annealing (CAPL unit) to eliminate cold hardening and rolling stress, or batch annealing reach the mechanical properties of the corresponding standard specifies. Cold rolled steel surface quality, appearance, dimensional accuracy better than hot-rolled plate, and right-rolled thin product thickness is about 0.18mm, so the majority of users favor.

Cold rolled steel coil substrate products deep processing of high value-added products. Such as electro-galvanized, hot dip galvanized, electro-galvanized fingerprint resistant, painted steel roll damping composite steel, PVC laminating steel plates, etc., so that the excellent quality of these products has a beautiful, high resistance to corrosion, has been widely used.

Cold rolled steel coil finishing after annealing, cut the head, tail, trimming, flattening, smooth, heavy volume, or longitudinal clipboard. Cold-rolled products are widely used in automobile manufacturing, household electrical appliances, instruments, switches, buildings, office furniture and other industries. Steel plate strapping package weight of 3 to 5 tons. Flat sub-volume typically 3 to 10 tons / volume. Coil diameter 6m.

Cold drawn steel tube is with hot-rolled steel coil as raw material, and tandem cold rolling pickled to remove oxide scale, its finished rolling hard roll, rolling hard volumes due to the continuous cold deformation caused by cold hardening strength, hardness increased indicators declined tough plastic, stamping performance will deteriorate, which can only be used for simple deformation of the parts.

Hot rolled seamless steel pipe deformed process

Hot-rolled seamless steel pipe production base deformation process can be summarized as three stages: perforation, extension and finishing.

round tube → heating → perforation → → three-roll rolling, rolling or extrusion → detached → sizing (or reducing) → cooling → straightening hydraulic test (orflaw) → tag → storage.

Billet is fed into the heating furnace, the temperature is about 1200 degrees Celsius. Fuel for a hydrogen or acetylene. The furnace temperature control is critical to wear air tube round, after the release of pressure puncher. which are generally more common puncher tapered roller punch this punch, high production efficiency, product quality, perforated expanding volume, wearing a variety of steels. After perforation, round tube has been three-roll cross rolling, rolling or extrusion.

After extrusion off pipe sizing. Sizing mill by the high-speed rotation of the cone drill into the Billet punch to form a steel pipe. The steel pipe inner diameter is determined by the length of the outer diameter of the sizing mill drill. After sizing, the steel pipe to enter the cooling tower by the water spray cooling, the steel pipe after cooling, it is necessary to be straightening. Sent by conveyor pipe by straightening the metal detection machine (or hydrostatic test) to conduct an internal flaw. Steel pipe internal issues such as cracks, bubbles will be detected.

Steel pipe quality inspection but also through a rigorous manual selection. Steel pipe of Quality Supervision, Inspection, use spray paint on the number, size, production batch. By a cable car hanging into the warehouse.

Hot rolled seamless steel pipe deformed processes - How to make seamless steel pipe

SEAMLESS PIPES EXECUTION STANDARD

There are probably hundreds of different methods for packing a steel pipe, and most of them have merit, but there are two principles that are vital for any method to work prevent rusting and Sea transportation security.

We can makes and markets cold-drawn and hot rolled seamless steel pipes and cold-drawn special-section seamless pipes which are widely applied in the industries of petrochemical, boiler, automobile, mechanical, construction.

API SPEC 5CT / 5L

Specification for Casing and Tubing, Eighth Edition, Petroleum and natural gas industries-Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells.

Product name Executive standard Dimension (mm) Steel code/ Steel grade
Casting API 5CT 114~219 x 5.2~22.2 J55, K55, N80, L80, P110
Tubing API 5CT 48.3~114.3 x 3.2~16 J55, K55, N80, L80, H40
Casting API 5L 10.3~1200 x1.0~120 A, B, X42, X46, X52, PSL1 / PSL2
ASTM / ASME

American Society for Testing and Materials(ASTM), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

Product name Executive standard Dimension (mm) Steel code/ Steel grade
Black and Hot-dipped Zinc-coated Steel Pipes Seamless ASTM A53 0.3~1200 x 1.0~150 GR.A, GR.B, GR.C
Seamless Carbon Steel for High Temperature Service ASTM A106 10.3~1200 x 1.0~150 GR.B, GR.C
Seamless Cold-drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes ASTM A179 10.3~426 x 1.0~36 Low Carbon Steel
Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes for High Pressure ASTM A192 10.3~426 x 1.0~36 Low Carbon Steel
Seamless Cold-drawn Intermediate Alloy Steel Heat-exchanger and Condenser Tubes ASTM A199 10.3~426 x 1.0~36 T5, T22
Seamless Medium-carbon Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes ASTM A210 10.3~426 x 1.0~36 A1, C
Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy Steel Boiler, Superheater and Heat-exchanger Tubes ASTM A213 10.3~426 x 1.0~36 T5, T9, T11, T12, T22, T91
Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel for Mechanical Tubing ASTM A333 1/4″~42″ x SCH20~XXS Gr1, Gr3, Gr6
Seamless Cold-drawn Carbon Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes ASTM A556 10.3~426 x 1.0~36 A2, B2
DIN/EN

Germany Safety(GS), Deutsches Institut für Normung(DIN)

Product name Executive standard Dimension (mm) Steel code/ Steel grade
Seamless Steel Tubes for Elevated Temperature DIN 17175 10~762 x 1.0~120 St35.8,St45.8, 10CrMo910, 15Mo3, 13CrMo44, STPL340, STB410, STB510, WB36
Manufacturing pipeline,vessel,equipment,pipe fittings. DIN 1629 13.5~762 x 1.8~120 St37.0, St44.0, St52.0
Seamless steel tubes for pressure purposes EN 10216 4.0~60.0 x 0.5~8
5-7 m manufacturing lenght
P235GH TC1, P235GH TC2, 16Mo3
Seamless precision steel tube applications EN 10305-1 13.5~165.1 x 1.8~4.85 St33.2
Seamless Precision Steel Tube DIN 2391 4.0~60.0 x 0.5~8 St35, St45, St52
Seamless Steel Tubes DIN 2440 13.5~165.1 x 1.8~4.85 St33.2
JIS

Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) specifies the standards used for industrial activities in Japan.

Product name Executive standard Dimension (mm) Steel code/ Steel grade
High pressure and high temperature service JIS G3454/5/6 19.05~114.3 x 2.0~14 JIS G3454(STPG370, STPG410), JIS G3455(STS370, STS410, STS480), JIS G3456(STPT370, STPT410, STPT480)
Tubes used for machinery, automobiles, bicycles, furniture, appliances and other machine parts. JIS G3445 19.05~114.3 x 2.0~14 STKM11A, STKM12(A,B,C), STKM13(A,B,C), STKM14(A,B,C).
Carbon steel/Alloy steel boiler and heat exchanger tubes JIS G3461,2 19.05~114.3 x 2.0~14 G3461(STB340, STB410, STB510)
G3462(STBA22, STBA23)
Seamless steel tubes for high pressure gas cylinder JIS G3429 19.05~114.3 x 2.0~14
Length: max 16000mm
STH11, STH12, STH21, STH22
GB 国标
Product name Executive standard Dimension (mm) Steel code/ Steel grade
Low and medium pressure boiler seamless pipe GB 3087 19.05~114.3 x 2.0~14 10#, 20#, 20G
Low-temperature heat exchanger tubes seamless steel pipe GB/T18984 19.05~351 x 2.0~14 06Ni3MoDG, 09DG, 09Mn2VDG, 10MnDG, 16MnDG
High pressure and above pressure steam boiler tubes with high quality carbon structural. GB5310 19.05~114.3 x 2.0~14 20G, 20MnG, 25MnG, 15MoG, 20MoG, 12CrMoG, 15CrMoG(T12/P12), 12CrMoG, 12Cr2MoWVTiB.

seamless process Acid Cleaning Workshop - How to make seamless steel pipe
Acid cleaning workshop
seamless process Cold Drawn Workshop - How to make seamless steel pipe
Cold Drawn Workshop
seamless process ECT 620 Eddy Currentautomatic Test System - How to make seamless steel pipe
ECT-620 Eddy Test System
seamless process Feeding intake - How to make seamless steel pipe
Feeding intake
seamless process Heat Treatment Workshop - How to make seamless steel pipe
Heat Treatment Workshop
seamless process Ingot heating - How to make seamless steel pipe
Ingot heating
QUALITY INSPECTION

seamless process Ultrasonic inspection of seamless pipes - How to make seamless steel pipe

Ultrasonic inspection

The ultrasonic probe can be realized electricity harmonies which can the mutual conversion of the Q and ultrasonic wave propagation in elastic media, the physical characteristic is the basis of the seamless steel pipe principle of the ultrasonic flaw detection.

seamless process ultrasonic test on astm a335 p22 pipe - How to make seamless steel pipe
Ultrasonic test on ASTM A335 P22 pipe

Directional transmission of the ultrasonic beam propagation in Seamless encounter defects, and produces both a reflection of the wave generated wave attenuation. After the flaw detector of the signal processing, such as obtained using a reflection method flaw defect echo signals, such as penetration method flaw virtue through the degree of attenuation of the wave guide to the defect signal. Both can be a quantitative defect indication is given by the instrument.

The use of the piezoelectric effect or the electromagnetic induction principle different types of ultrasonic wave can be excited within the tube. Therefore, the piezoelectric ultrasonic and electromagnetic ultrasound can be used to pipe ultrasonic inspection. But the electromagnetic ultrasonic applies only to the ferromagnetic material.

Ultrasonic inspection of seamless pipes method

1, wave (or plate waves) reflection method the (or penetration method), in the state where the relative movement of the probe and a high pressure boiler tubes automatic inspection, the only special large-diameter seamless cam manual inspection. Automatic or manual inspection should ensure the sound beam scanning the surface of all of seamless steel pipe.

2, longitudinal defect inspection acoustic beam in the tube wall along the circumferential direction of propagation; test transverse defects propagation direction of the acoustic beam in the tube wall along the tube axis. The longitudinal and transverse defect inspection should be carried out in two opposite directions on the tube.

3,In demand-side transverse defect inspection is not made for the party inspection of longitudinal imperfections. Both parties agree that the buyer and the seller, the inspection of longitudinal and transverse defects can be only in the direction of the tube.

4,Automatic or manual inspection should be chosen coupled to good effect and without prejudice to the seamless steel pipe surface coupling medium.

seamless process ultrasonic test on astm a335 p22 pipe - How to make seamless steel pipe
Ultrasonic test on A335 pipe

seamless process Non destructive testing of seamless steel pipe - How to make seamless steel pipe

Non destructive testing

For steel quality inspection, ultrasonic testing, including for the purpose of detected defects ultrasonic testing and ultrasound to measure the dimensions for the purpose of measuring. Wider application of the former, automated testing, manually testing; latter application, generally manual measurement.

NDT (Nondestructive Testing)

seamless process Non destructive testing of seamless steel pipe - How to make seamless steel pipe
Non-destructive testing

Nondestructive Testing, shorted for NDT, is a widely-used method in pipeline inspection. It is a process of testing, inspecting and evaluating the quality and characteristics of the material without damaging the pipeline itself or affecting the later regular work of the pipe. In other words, after NDT testing, the part can still be put into practical use. NDT utilizes the changes in heat, sound and magnets caused by abnormal inner structure or flaws to inspect the internal and external defects of the material.

The common inspection methods of NDT are visual testing (VT), ultrasonic testing (UT), radiographic testing (RT), hydrostatic testing. Anson International co, ltd uses ultrasonic testing (UT) and hydrostatic testing to inspect its line pipes.

In order to verify the mechanical properties of seamless steel pipe to meet the requirements of the standard, the test sample of seamless steel pipe mechanical performance should be prepared carefully. Mechanical property test includes tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, impact energy and so on. Process performance test includes flattening test, flaring test, hydrostatic testing, curling trials, cold bend test, perforation test. These test items are based on different standards and different uses of seamless steel tubes.

The magnetic flux leakage testing

The magnetic flux leakage testing is a non-destructive testing technology based on ferromagnetic material magnetic changes. When the ferromagnetic material is magnetized, and generates a leakage magnetic field due to the presence of defects on the workpiece surface, and therefore, through the detection of the magnetic flux leakage can be found in defects in the large caliber Seamless thermal expansion material. Steel pipe magnetic flux leakage testing technology is divided into two kinds of magnetic particle inspection method and magnetic field measurement method. The former is simple, but requires the naked eye to observe the magnetic marks, it is difficult to automate. The latter despite the device complexity, high cost and the operation is difficult, but it is picked up by sensors leakage magnetic field information, and therefore easy to automate testing suitable for the automatic inspection of large quantities of steel pipe. Therefore, under normal circumstances, no special instructions, usually refers to the magnetic field of the magnetic flux leakage testing of steel pipes assay.

Eddy current testing

seamless process ECT 620 Eddy Currentautomatic Test System - How to make seamless steel pipe
ECT-620 Eddy Currentautomatic Test System

Eddy current testing method is more wide range of applications in the industrial field of non-destructive testing methods. It is based on the theory of electromagnetic induction, without any coupling agent can 100% fast automatic detection of the specimen. it is even more powerful tool for the rapid detection of bulk. Therefore, it is even not limited to the large caliber thermal expansion seamless steel pipe, has become a necessary means of various types of steel quality inspection. Automatic eddy current testing method is mainly suitable for quality inspection of steel pipes a little probe testing method and through-probe testing method two.

The former method of using the high-speed rotation of the point probe to detect longitudinal defects in the steel pipe, the detection speed is determined by the quantity of the probe and the speed of rotation, in general, is relatively slow, and the latter through the probe to detect the steel pipe transverse defects, this method is simple, and the testing speed (generally up to 60m/min), Further, since the eddy current flaw detection method is particularly sensitive pair of through holes, the related standards of the main method is to replace the pipe hydrostatic test.

Seamless steel pipe quality testing is a very important step, and for its detection method is also very particular to now all three – ultrasonic testing, Eddy current testing, magnetic flux leakage testing, specific circumstances are as follows:

Yaang has taken a leading role in steel market for many years by providing technical service support to customers through our qualified and experienced staff. We promise that our products have been certified by ISO/ API/ ASTM authority institute.

They are produced according to given standard and we accept you or the 3rd party inspection at any time. Specified NDT/ PT/ HT/ AH/ TPI also accepted by Anson as per client’s request.

Seamless Tube and Pipe

The main seamless tube manufacturing processes came into being toward the end of the nineteenth century. As patent and proprietary rights expired, the various parallel developments initially pursued became less distinct and their individual forming stages were merged into new processes. Today, the state of the art has developed to the point where preference is given to the following modern high-performance processes:

The continuous mandrel rolling process and the push bench process in the size range from approx. 21 to 178 mm outside diameter.

The multi-stand plug mill (MPM) with controlled (constrained) floating mandrel bar and the plug mill process in the size range from approx. 140 to 406 mm outside diameter.

The cross roll piercing and pilger rolling process in the size range from approx. 250 to 660 mm outside diameter.

Mandrel Mill Process

In the Mandrel Mill Process, a solid round (billet) is used. It is heated in a rotary hearth heating furnace and then pierced by a piercer. The pierced billet or hollow shell is rolled by a mandrel mill to reduce the outside diameter and wall thickness which forms a multiple length mother tube. The mother tube is reheated and further reduced to specified dimensions by the stretch reducer. The tube is then cooled, cut, straightened and subjected to finishing and inspection processes befor shipment.

mandrel mill - How to make seamless steel pipe

* Note: Processes marked by an asterisk are conducted specification and/or customer requirements

Mannesmann plug mill process

In the Plug Mill Process, a solid round (billet) is used. It is uniformly heated in the rotary hearth heating furnace and then pierced by a Mannesmann piercer. The pierced billet or hollow shell is rollreduced in outside diameter and wall thickness. The rolled tube simultaneously burnished inside and outside by a reeling machine. The reeled tube is then sized by a sizing mill to the specified dimensions. From this step the tube goes through the straightener. This process completes the hot working of the tube. The tube (referred to as a mother tube) after finishing and inspection, becomes a finished product.

plug mill - How to make seamless steel pipe

Welded Tube and Pipe

Ever since it became possible to manufacture strip and plate, people have constantly tried to bend the material and connect its edges in order to manufacture tube and pipe. This led to the development of the oldest welding process, that of forge-welding, which goes back over 150 years.

In 1825, the British ironware merchant James Whitehouse was granted a patent for the manufacture of welded pipe. The process consisted of forging individual metal plates over a mandrel to produce an open-seam pipe, and then heating the mating edges of the open seam and welding them by pressing them together mechanically in a draw bench.

The technology evolved to the point where strip could be formed and welded in one pass in a welding furnace. The development of this butt-welding concept culminated in 1931 in the Fretz-Moon process devised by J. Moon, an American, and his German colleague Fretz.

Welding lines employing this process are still operating successfully today in the manufacture of tube up to outside diameters of approx. 114 mm. Aside from this hot pressure welding technique, in which the strip is heated in a furnace to welding temperature, several other processes were devised by the American E. Thomson between the years 1886 and 1890 enabling metals to be electrically welded. The basis for this was the property discovered by James P. Joule whereby passing an electric current through a conductor causes it to heat up due to its electrical resistance.

In 1898, the Standard Tool Company, USA, was granted a patent covering the application of electric resistance welding for tube and pipe manufacture. The production of electric resistance welded tube and pipe received a considerable boost in the United States, and much later in Germany, following the establishment of continuous hot strip rolling mills for the production of the bulk starting material necessary for large-scale manufacture. During the Second World War, an argon arc welding process was invented – again in the United States – which enabled the efficient welding of magnesium in aircraft construction.

As a consequence of this development, various gas-shielded welding processes were developed, predominantly for the production of stainless steel tube.Following the far-reaching developments which have occurred in the energy sector in the last 30 years, and the resultant construction of large-capacity long-distance pipelines, the submerged-arc welding process has gained a position of pre-eminence for the welding of line pipe of diameters upward of approx. 500 mm.

Electric Weld Pipe Mill

Steel strip in coil, which has been slit into the required width from wide strip, is shaped by a series of forming rolls into a multiple length shell. The longitudinal edges are continously joined by high frequency resistance/induction welding.
The weld of multiple length shell is then head treated electrically, sized and cut to specified lengths by a flying cut-off machine. The cut pipe is straightened and squared at both ends.
These operations are followed by ultrasonic inspection or hydrostatic testing.

erw process - How to make seamless steel pipe

Hot Piercing Workshop2 - How to make seamless steel pipe

Piercing process

The cross roll piercing and pilger rolling process in the size range from approx. 250 to 660 mm outside diameter.

Generally the billet is plastically deformed at a certain temperature environment, through a dedicated mold, the metal to produce a continuous smooth flow of the process to achieve the deformed geometry requirements.

Perforation is to wear a circular cross-section billet deformation tube made of wool.

Technology links are:
billet heating – high pressure water descaling – Thermal Centering – perforation – blow borax.

Billet heating: 
the blank optimum temperature plastic, it is the basis for the entire steel rolling.

High-pressure water descaling:
remove the heat of the blank outer oxide scale, reducing system wear resistance.

Thermal Centering:
improve low plasticity steel plasticity, effectively reduce the axial perforation resistance, reduce head loss.

Blow Borax:
remove the inner capillary surface oxide for reduced rolling resistance.

ASTM A179 cold drawn steel tube - How to make seamless steel pipe
Pipe weld cracks

Pipe weld cracks often follow different mechanisms can be divided into two types of thermal cracking and cold cracking. It is produced by the thermal cracking of a liquid to a solid state crystallization process in the weld metal, mostly generated in the weld metal. The main causes of its low-melting substance is present in the weld, which weakens the contact between the grains when subjected to high welding stress, it is easy to cause breakdown between the grains. Weldments and welding rod containing S, Cu impurities such a long time, it is prone to hot cracking.

Thermal cracking characteristic distribution along the grain boundaries. When the crack through the surface and the outside world, it is a clear tendency hydrogenation. Cold cracks are generated in the cooling process after welding, mostly produced in the base metal or base metal and the weld fusion line junction. The main reason is due to its generation or the weld heat affected zone formed within the quenched structure, under high stress, causing rupture of grains, the higher the carbon content of the welding elements, or more easily hardened alloy steel, the most prone to cold cracking. Excessive weld melt into hydrogen, can also cause cold cracking. A defect of the most dangerous cracks, which in addition to reducing the cross-section than the bearing, but also produce severe stress concentration at the crack will gradually expand in use, may eventually lead to the destruction member. So welded structures are generally not permitted the existence of such defect has been found to be a shovel to re-welding.

Steel pipe internal defects of weld lack of penetration is refers to the workpiece and the weld metal or weld layer between local incomplete fusion of a defect. Incomplete penetration welds weakened section of the work, causing serious stress concentration, greatly reduce joint strength, it is often a source of weld cracking. Weld slag sandwiched nonmetallic slag, that is called slag. Weld slag reduces work-section, resulting in stress concentration will reduce weld strength and toughness.

Porosity of the weld metal at high temperatures, the absorption due to too much gas or gas dissolved within the cell is generated by the reaction of metallurgical, too late when the bath is discharged is cooled and solidified, and the weld hole is formed inside or the surface, i.e. pores. The presence of pores reduces the effective work of the weld cross-section, to reduce the mechanical strength of the joint. If penetrating pores or continuity exists, it will seriously affect the tightness of the weldment. After cracking during welding or welding metal in the welded joints appearing partial rupture area called crack. Cracks may occur in the weld may also be produced in the weld heat affected zone on both sides. Sometimes occurs on the metal surface, the metal may be generated internally.

precision seamless tubes 2 - How to make seamless steel pipe
How to Calculate a steel pipe?
Calculate the weight of round pipe and Special Section Tubes
calculat round pipe1 - How to make seamless steel pipe
T.W.=(D-S)*S*24.65/1000
calculat rectangular pipe1 - How to make seamless steel pipe
T.W.=((B+A)/2-S)*S*31.4)/1000
calculat ellipse pipe2 - How to make seamless steel pipe
T.W.=12.33*(B+A-2S)*S/1000
calculat hexagonal pipe1 - How to make seamless steel pipe
T.W.=24.65*(1.1*SW+1.2*S)*S/1000
calculat square pipe1 - How to make seamless steel pipe
T.W.=(A-S)*S*31.4/1000
calculat ellipse pipe1 - How to make seamless steel pipe
T.W.=[(24.65*(B-S))+(15.7*(A-B))*S]/1000
calculat ellipse pipe3 - How to make seamless steel pipe
T.W.=[(A+(B/2*3.14))/2/2-S]*S*3.14
calculat eight square pipe1 - How to make seamless steel pipe
T.W.=24.65*(1.06*SW+1.11*S)*S/1000

Gather the necessary information. You will need to know the outside diameter of the pipe. This is the distance of a straight line that runs through the center of the pipe and connects two points on the pipe’s surface. You will also need to know the wall thickness of the pipe. Both of these measurements should be taken in inches. The final thing that you will need to know is the length of the pipe. This last measurement should be taken in feet.

Subtract the pipe’s wall thickness from the pipe’s outside diameter. For example, if you had a pipe with a diameter of six inches and a wall thickness of two inches, you would subtract two from six to get four.

Seamless pipe end beveld cut - How to make seamless steel pipe
Pipe beveling

Pipe beveling is the process where an angle is formed between the edge of the end of a pipe or tube and a plane perpendicular to the surface.

Pipe beveld cut - How to make seamless steel pipe

A standard pipe bevel angle for welding is 37.5 degrees. Other angles and special forms such as J-Bevels can also be produced on the ends of pipe or tube using automatic beveling machines.

What is pipeline beveled end and why use it?
Pipe Beveling - How to make seamless steel pipe

pipeline beveled endBeveled end, to put it simply, is a joint surface with a specific beveled angle. In fact, it is processed prior to the welding of two pieces of line pipes, an angle formed at the edge of the end of the pipe with the help of a beveling machine. Beveling of pipe or tubing is most commonly used to prepare the ends for welding. It can also be used for deburring the cut ends for safety and aesthetic reasons.

Subtract the pipe’s wall thickness from the pipe’s outside diameter. For example, if you had a pipe with a diameter of six inches and a wall thickness of two inches, you would subtract two from six to get four.

Common types of beveled ends and comparison among different types

Beveling ends can be made into various angles, achieving the better welding seam. Common beveled ends for butt joints are I—Type butt joint, single—V beveled end, double—V beveled end and single U—beveled end.

common types of beveled ends - How to make seamless steel pipe
Common types of beveled ends
  • I—type butt joint, also called square butt joint, is a relatively simple joint method for pipes of 1 to 6 mm in thickness. Strictly speaking, it is not a beveled end joint, for it only requires parallel matching the edges of two pieces together without certain angles. It is easy and economic to process, but is not recommended for pipes of thick walls. As for thicker wall pipes, the angle of the bevel ends needs full consideration, trying to use the least filler metal material to provide the desired welding soundness.
  • Single—V beveled end, is the most widely-used butt joint type in pipeline application. It suits pipes with the thickness of 3 to 26 mm. The beveled angle should be approximately 40 to 60°. Single—V beveled end is processed by a beveling machine. Comparatively speaking, it is more costly and needs more filler material than the I—type butt joint, but the joint is much stronger than the square joint. The disadvantage of single-V beveled end is its easy subjection to angular deformation.
  • Double—V beveled end, also called X—beveled end, is developed on the basis of single—V beveled end. It needs double-side welding, so the material needs to be turned over after welded one side and the preparation time is longer than the single-V beveled end. It can be used for pipes of thickness 12 to 60mm. For pipes of same thickness, a double—V beveled end requires less filler metal material, because there are two narrower V-joints compared to one wider single—V beveled end.
  • Single-U beveled end is a one-side welding joint. It requires less filler metal material than double—V beveled end and is less subjective to deformation. However, due to the radian shape, it is more difficult to process than the former methods.

Beveled angle refers to the angle between the two beveled surfaces. Beveled face angle, normally used for single-U type, refers to the angle between the beveled surface and the vertical line to the pipe itself. The root opening refers to the gap between the roots of both pieces before welding, to ensure the roots get complete welding. The root radius for single-U beveled end is to increase the transverse space between the roots, making the welding reach the bottom of the root.

Yaang provides you pipelines with beveled ends

We can apply any type of Bevel to any degree required.

Seamless pipe end beveld cut - How to make seamless steel pipe
Beveling can applied to the face of any size or diameter of pipe.

pipe ends - How to make seamless steel pipe

Ends of Pipes

For the ends of pipes are 3 standard versions available.

  • Plain Ends (PE)
  • Threaded Ends (TE)
  • Beveled Ends (BE)

The PE pipes will generally be used for the smaller diameters pipe systems and in combination with Slip On flanges and Socket Weld fittings and flanges.

The TE implementation speaks for itself, this performance will generally used for small diameters pipe systems, and the connections will be made with threaded flanges and threaded fittings.

root face - How to make seamless steel pipeThe BE implementation is applied to all diameters of buttweld flanges or buttweld fittings, and will be directly welded (with a small gap 3-4 mm) to each other or to the pipe. Ends are mostly be beveled to angle 30° (+ 5° / -0°) with a root face of 1.6 mm (± 0.8 mm).

Length of Pipes

Piping lengths from the factory not exactly cut to length but are normally delivered as:

  • Single random length has a length of around 5-7 meter
  • Double random length has a length of around 11-13 meter
  • Shorter and longer lengths are available, but for a calculation, it is wise, to use this standard lengths;
  • other sizes are probably more expensive.

ERW cutting - How to make seamless steel pipe
Pipe cutting

The length of the pipe cut according to the requirement. Cutting tools have a grinding wheel piece cutting machine (also known as toothless saw), hand saw, cutter and other hand tools.

Grinding wheel piece cutting machine: is suitable for cutting metal pipes or metal profiles, especially bulk cutting processing is the most economic. Pipe cutting length you need should be determined before and draw a good cutting line. Pipe cutting machine before cutting jig should be fixed firmly. Machine starts, press the grinding wheel slowly, not slam the rapid or too much pressure, so as not to burst grinding wheel accidents.

Handsaw: 
saw blade teeth should point to the thrust direction, saw blade to tighten, not wobble. Operation when the pressure pipe clamp fixed on the console (console height was about lm), then firmly push and pull, can one man operation, but also the two with the operation. To prevent heat and maintain lubrication can be made to Jukou drip oil. No matter use mechanical or hand according to the cutting all rong or feathered a cut section level off is smooth. Research may not be in slit fold truncation.

Cutter: 
is the use of rollers with a sharp knife, make 3600 the card on the pipe rotation, tighten the top wire while rotating the hob until it gradually into the top pipe cut off. In this way cutting metal pipe, the pipe will tilt tube wall, not only reduces the tube diameter, also make the pipe wall is not smooth, damage to the conductor. Under normal circumstances should not be taken in cutting metal pipes. When used, if necessary, must be cut diameter steel pipe with a round file file level, so that the pipe diameter and the diameter of the same incision.

PIPE ASTM A 192 packing - How to make seamless steel pipe
Packing the steel pipes

There are probably hundreds of different methods for packing a pipe, and most of them have merit, but there are two principles that are vital for any method to work prevent rusting and Sea transportation security.

steel strips bunding for fixed pipes - How to make seamless steel pipe

  • Plastic caps plugged at the two sides of pipe ends
  • Should be avoided by the steel strapping and transport damage
  • Bundled signs should be uniform and consistent
  • The same bundle(batch) of steel pipe should be came from the same furnace.
  • The steel pipe has the same furnace number, the same steel grade, the same specifications.

Our packing can meet any needs of the customers.

bundle packing seamless pipe - How to make seamless steel pipe
Bundle packing
naked packing seamless pipe - How to make seamless steel pipe
Naked packing
crate packing seamless pipe - How to make seamless steel pipe
Crate packing ASTM A213 T5b
protect by wood at both ends - How to make seamless steel pipe
Protect by wood at both ends
packing u bend tubes - How to make seamless steel pipe
Packing the U-bend tubes
packing oil pipes - How to make seamless steel pipe
Protect by the pipe caps

Condition on delivery:
Term Symbol Explanation
Cold-finished/hard
(cold-finished as-drawn)
BK No heat treatment after the last cold-forming process. The tubes therefore have only low deformability.
Cold-finished/soft
(lightly cold-worked)
BKW After the last heat treatment there is a light finishing pass (cold drawing) With proper subsequent processing, the tube can be cold-formed (e.g. bent, expanded) within certain limits.
Annealed GBK After the final cold-forming process the tubes are annealed in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum.
Normalized NBK The tubes are annealed above the upper transformation point in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum.


Source: 
China Seamless Steel Pipe Manufacturer
 – Yaang Pipe Industry (www.steeljrv.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

If you want to have more information about the article or you want to share your opinion with us, contact us at sales@steeljrv.com
Please notice that you might be interested in the other technical articles we’ve published:

  • How to get high quality alloy steel pipes
  • Knowledges of seamless steel pipes
  • How to get high quality stainless steel pipes
  • What is a welded steel pipe
  • Difference between galvanized steel pipe and seamless steel pipe
  • The difference between steel tubes and steel pipes
  • How to get high quality steel pipes
  • How to get high quality carbon steel pipes
  • How To Distinguish Inferior Steel Pipe
  • What is the difference between a steel pipe and a steel tube
  • Manufacturing process of cold rolled steel pipe

  • Cold Working Processes of Steel Pipes
  • The cutting processing technology of stainless steel pipe
  • The production process of welded stainless steel pipe
 • How to get high quality astm a335 chrome moly pipe
 • What is a welded steel pipe

 • How to get high quality ASTM A333 alloy pipes

 • ASTM A519

 • ASTM A213 Alloy Pipes

References:

  • http://www.wermac.org/pipes/pipemaking.html
  • https://www.yaang.com/hot-rolled-seamless-steel-pipe-deformed-processes.html

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