I-Beam Vs H-Beam

Sometimes people will ask what is the difference between I-beam and H-beam, and how to distinguish them. Others will think that I-beam and H-beam are the same thing. In fact, this understanding is wrong. Let’s guess which is I-beam and which is H-beam in the following two pictures?

20210212234331 53886 - I-Beam Vs H-Beam 20210212234344 67302 - I-Beam Vs H-Beam
Figure.1 I-beam Figure.2 H-beam

For familiar friends, you can see at a glance that the first picture is I-beam, and the second picture is H-beam. Then what is the basis? The following is a specific introduction.

20210212234516 21134 - I-Beam Vs H-Beam

Figure.3 I-Beam Vs H-Beam

What is an I-Beam?

An i-beam, also known as universal beam, is a long steel with I-shaped section. I-beam can be divided into ordinary I-beam and light I-beam. It is a steel with I-shaped section.

20210212235244 77023 - I-Beam Vs H-Beam

Classification of I-beams

I-beams are mainly divided into ordinary I-beams, light I-beams and wide flange I-beams. According to the height ratio of flange to web, they are divided into wide, medium and narrow flange I-beams. The specifications of the former two are No. 10-60, that is, the corresponding height is 10 cm-60 cm. Under the same height, light I-beams have narrow flange, thin web and heavy web Light weight. Wide flange I-beam, also known as H-beam, is characterized by two parallel legs and no inclination inside legs. It belongs to economic section steel and is rolled on four high universal mill, so it is also known as “universal I-beam”. Ordinary I-beam and light I-beam have formed national standard.

Pass design of I-beam

The specification of I-beam is expressed by the centimeter value of waist width. For example, the waist width of No.10 I-beam is 10cm. The types of I-beam are hot-rolled common I-beam, light I-beam and wide parallel leg I-beam (H-beam). The waist width of Chinese hot-rolled common I-beam is 100-630mm, expressed as no.10-no.63, and the inclination of inner wall of leg is 1:6. The pass system of rolling I-beam has straight pass In addition, special rolling method can be used for I-beam.

  • (1) Direct rolling pass system refers to the pass system in which the two open legs of I-beam pass are on the same side of roll axis at the same time and the waist is parallel to roll axis.
  • It has the advantages of small axial force, small axial movement, no need of working inclined plane, and small occupation of roll body length by pass.
  • (2) Cross rolling pass system. This pass system means that the two open legs of I-beam pass are not at the same side of the waist at the same time, and there is an angle between the waist and the horizontal axis.
  • (3) Mixed pass system. According to the characteristics of rolling mills and products, in order to give full play to the advantages and overcome the disadvantages of their respective systems, the mixed pass system is often used, that is, the combination of more than two systems. For example, the straight leg cross rolling pass system is used for the finished hole and the front hole of the finished product, and the bending leg cross rolling system is used for other passes; or the direct rolling system is used for the rough rolling hole, and the direct rolling system is used for the last 3-4 finishing rolling holes Leg oblique hole, etc.
  • (4) Special rolling method. For some reason, when it is difficult to produce the required I-beam by the usual rolling method, the special rolling method can be used to make full use of the skills of uneven deformation and pass design. For example, when the billet section is narrow and the I-beam is required to be rolled wider, the wave rolling method can be used; when the billet is wide and the I-beam is required to be rolled smaller, the negative rolling method can be used Wide spread rolling, etc.

Application characteristics of I-beam

I-shaped steel, whether ordinary or light, can only be directly used for bending members in the web plane or forming lattice members because of its relatively high and narrow cross-section size and large difference in inertia moment between the two principal axes of the section. It is not suitable for axial compression members or bending members perpendicular to the web plane, which makes it widely used I-beam is widely used in architecture and other metal structures.
Ordinary I-beam and light I-beam are relatively high and narrow in cross-section size, so there is a big difference in inertia moment between two main shafts of cross-section, which limits their application scope. The use of I-beam should be based on the requirements of design drawings.
The selection of I-beam in structural design should be based on its mechanical properties, chemical properties, weldability and structural size.

Specification and model of I-beam

The specification is expressed by height × leg thickness × waist thickness, and the number can also be used to indicate the main size of the specification. For example, 18 I-steel is 18 cm high. If the height of I-steel is the same, angle code a or B or C can be added after the number, such as 36a, 36B, 36C, etc. it can be divided into ordinary I-steel, light I-steel and wide flange I-steel. According to the height of flange and web plate The former two types of I-beams are 10-60, that is, the corresponding height is 10-60 cm.

The expression method of I-beam size: h × b × d

20210213000124 15416 - I-Beam Vs H-Beam

Shape/Dimensions of I-Beams

steel pic4 1 - I-Beam Vs H-Beam

Dimensionsmm Cross-sectional Unit mass
H×B t1 t2 r1 r2 area(cm3 (kg/m)
150×125 8.5 14 13 6.5 46.15 36.2
180×100 6 10 10 5 30.06 23.6
200×100 7 10 10 5 33.06 26
200×150 9 16 15 7.5 64.16 50.4
250×125 7.5 12.5 12 6 48.79 38.3
250×125 10 19 21 10.5 70.73 55.5
300×150 8 13 12 6 61.58 48.3
300×150 10 18.5 19 9.5 83.47 65.5
300×150 11.5 22 23 11.5 97.88 76.8
350×150 9 15 13 6.5 74.58 58.5
350×150 12 24 25 12.5 111.1 87.2
400×150 10 18 17 8.5 91.73 72
400×150 12.5 25 27 13.5 122.1 95.8
450×175 11 20 19 9.5 116.8 91.7
450×175 13 26 27 13.5 146.1 115
600×190 13 25 25 12.5 169.4 133
600×190 16 35 38 19 224.5 176
Reference
Second moment Radius of gyration Section
of areacm4 of areacm modulus (cm3)
lx ly ix iy zx zy
1,760 385 6.18 2.89 235 61.6
1,670 138 7.45 2.14 186 27.5
2,170 138 8.11 2.05 217 27.7
4,460 753 8.34 3.43 446 100
5,180 337 10.3 2.63 414 53.9
7,310 538 10.2 2.76 585 86
9,480 588 12.4 3.09 632 78.4
12,700 886 12.3 3.26 849 118
14,700 1,080 12.2 3.32 978 143
15,200 702 14.3 3.07 870 93.5
22,400 1,180 14.2 3.26 1,280 158
24,100 864 16.2 3.07 1,200 115
31,700 1,240 16.1 3.18 1,580 165
39,200 1,510 18.3 3.6 1,740 173
48,800 2,020 18.3 3.72 2,170 231
98,400 2,460 24.1 3.81 3,280 259
130,000 3,540 24.1 3.97 4,330 373
  • 1. When ordering, please specify actual dimensions (H×B×t1/t2×length).

  • 2. The sizes marked * are not constantly being rolled, so please inquire when ordering.

  • 3. Please talk to us in advance about turnaround times and specifications (bending, shot blasting, etc.).

  • 4. Standard length is 6 m or more with 500 mm pitch up to 24 m, but for orders over 15 m, please talk to us before ordering.

What is an H-Beam?

An h-beam is a kind of economical and efficient profile with more optimized cross-section area distribution and more reasonable strength to weight ratio. It is named because its cross-section is the same as the English letter “H”. Because all parts of H-beam are arranged at right angles, H-beam has the advantages of strong bending resistance, simple construction, cost saving and light structure weight in all directions, and has been widely used.

The section shape is similar to the capital Latin letter H, which is also called universal steel beam, wide edge I-beam or parallel flange I-beam. The cross section of H-beam usually includes web and flange plate, also known as waist and edge.

H beam - I-Beam Vs H-Beam

Characteristics of H-beam

The inner and outer sides of the flange of the H-beam are parallel or nearly parallel, and the flange ends are at right angles, so it is called parallel flange I-beam. The thickness of the web of the H-beam is smaller than that of the ordinary I-beam with the same height of the web, and the width of the flange is larger than that of the ordinary I-beam with the same height of the web, so it is also called wide flange I-beam. Determined by the shape, the section modulus, moment of inertia and corresponding strength of the H-beam are obvious It is superior to the common I-beam with the same single weight. When used in metal structures with different requirements, it shows its superior performance in bearing bending moment, pressure load and eccentric load. Compared with the common I-beam, it can greatly improve the bearing capacity and save metal by 10% – 40%. H-beam has wide flange, thin web, many specifications and flexible use, and can save metal by 15% – 40% when used in various truss structures Because the inner and outer sides of the flange are parallel, and the flange ends are at right angles, it is easy to assemble and combine into various components, which can save about 25% of the welding and riveting workload, greatly accelerate the construction speed of the project and shorten the construction period.

Application of H-beam

Due to the above advantages, H-beam is widely used in various civil and industrial building structures, various large-span industrial plants and modern high-rise buildings, especially in areas with frequent seismic activities and industrial plants under high temperature working conditions, large bridges with large bearing capacity, good cross-section stability and large span, heavy equipment, expressways, ship skeletons, etc; Mine support; foundation treatment and dam engineering; various machine components.

Classification of H-beam

There are many specifications of H-beam products, and the classification methods are as follows.

  • (1) According to the flange width of products, they are divided into wide flange, middle flange and narrow flange H-section steel. The flange width b of wide flange and middle flange H-section steel is greater than or equal to the web height H. the flange width b of narrow flange H-section steel is about half of the web height H.
  • (2) According to the use of products, it can be divided into H-beam, H-column, H-pile and H-beam with very thick flange. Sometimes parallel leg channel steel and parallel flange T-steel are also included in the scope of H-beam. Generally, narrow flange H-beam is used as beam material and wide flange H-beam is used as column material. Therefore, it is also called beam H-beam and column H-beam.
  • (3) It can be divided into welded H-beam and rolled H-beam according to the production mode.
  • (4) It can be divided into large, medium and small H-beam according to the size and specification. Generally, the products with web height of more than 700mm are called large, those with web height of 300-700mm are called medium, and those with web height of less than 300mm are called small. By the end of 1990, the world’s largest H-beam had web height of 1200mm and flange width of 530mm.

In the world, the product standards of H-beam can be divided into English system and metric system. English system is adopted in the United States, Britain and other countries, while metric system is adopted in China, Japan, Germany and Russia. Although the measurement units used in English system and metric system are different, the specifications of H-beam are mostly shown in four dimensions: web height h, flange width b, web thickness D and flange thickness t There are different ways to express the size of H-beam in the world, but the size range and tolerance of the products are similar.

HW, HM, HN and H are the general names of H-beam, H-beam is welded; HW, HM, HN is hot rolled.

  • HW is H-beam, whose height and flange width are basically equal; it is mainly used for steel core column in reinforced concrete frame structure column, also known as rigid steel column; it is mainly used for column in steel structure.
  • HM is the ratio of H-beam height and flange width, which is about 1.33-1.75. It is mainly used in steel structures: as steel frame columns, and as frame beams in frame structures bearing dynamic loads; for example, equipment platforms.
  • HN, the ratio of H-beam height to flange width is greater than or equal to 2; it is mainly used for beams (because its section looks like capital letter “I” I-beam, the introduction of the difference between I-beam and H-beam is also called I-beam).

Production method of H-beam

H-beam is a kind of economic section steel. There are two kinds of H-beam, hot rolled and welded. It is generally believed that when the section modulus of H-beam exceeds 10000, it is better to produce extruded H-beam by rolling than by welding. There are many kinds of H-beam, although the section modulus is not large, because the section is asymmetric, such as the legs have different lengths or thicknesses Compared with the rolling method, the welding method has the advantages of being able to “produce all kinds of H-beam sections which are difficult to roll”. The production operation is flexible and suitable for the market demand of small batch and variety.
The disadvantages of welding method are high metal consumption, high production cost and low output.
The production process of welded H-beam can be divided into two types: one is continuous type, which uses steel coil as raw material; the other is intermittent type, which uses steel plate as raw material.
The continuous process flow is as follows: steel strip longitudinal cutting → uncoiling → beveling → positioning → welding → straightening → shearing → packaging. The equipment layout is shown in the figure.

20210213001732 43631 - I-Beam Vs H-Beam
Equipment layout of continuous welding H-beam unit
The intermittent process is as follows: cutting and blanking → drying and shot peening → prebending → aligning and prewelding → feeding and welding → overturning and re welding → cutting to length → straightening → mark antirust → packaging.
Continuous process mostly adopts high-frequency welding, its output is about 20000 ~ 50000 T / A, it can produce narrow side, middle side and wide side H-beam, T-beam and l-beam with height of 200 ~ 500. Its welding speed can reach 30m / min. intermittent process mostly adopts submerged arc welding, its output is about 10000 ~ 30000 t / A, it can produce various width H-beam and T-beam with height of 200 ~ 1500mm, and its welding speed is high 8 m / min.
Continuous welding machine set was first invented in the United States, and then Japan, Sweden, Italy, Germany and other countries have built continuous welding H-beam machine set. Intermittent welding machine set is earlier than continuous welding machine set, and now almost all countries have it. This kind of machine set produced by Wuxi Hualian welding and cutting equipment factory not only supplies a large number of domestic units, but also exports to many countries.

Shape/Dimensions of H-Beams

Expression method of H-beam: h×b×t1×t2

20210213002345 61112 - I-Beam Vs H-Beam

Wide Flange Series

steel pic1 - I-Beam Vs H-Beam

Classification Standard cross-section Cross-sectional Unit mass
(Height × Flange width) dimensions (mm) area(cm3) (kg/m)
H×B t1 t2 r
100×100 *100×100 6 8 8 21.59 16.9
125×125 125×125 6.5 9 8 30 23.6
150×150 150×150 7 10 8 39.65 31.1
175×175 175×175 7.5 11 13 51.43 40.4
200×200 200×200 8 12 13 63.53 49.9
*200×204 12 12 13 71.53 56.2
250×250 *244×252 11 11 13 81.31 63.8
250×250 9 14 13 91.43 71.8
*250×255 14 14 13 103.9 81.6
300×300 *294×302 12 12 13 106.3 83.4
300×300 10 15 13 118.5 93
*300×305 15 15 13 133.4 105
350×350 *344×348 10 16 13 144 113
*344×354 16 16 13 164.6 129
350×350 12 19 13 171.9 135
400×400 400×400 13 21 22 218.7 172
Classification Reference
(Height × Flange width) Second moment Radius of gyration Section
of area(cm4) of area(cm) modulus(cm3)
lx ly ix iy zx zy
100×100 378 134 4.18 2.49 75.6 26.7
125×125 839 293 5.29 3.13 134 46.9
150×150 1,620 563 6.4 3.77 216 75.1
175×175 2,900 984 7.5 4.37 331 112
200×200 4,720 1,600 8.62 5.02 472 160
4,980 1,700 8.35 4.88 498 167
250×250 8,700 2,940 10.3 6.01 713 233
10,700 3,650 10.8 6.32 860 292
11,400 3,880 10.5 6.11 912 304
300×300 16,600 5,510 12.5 7.2 1,130.00 365
20,200 6,750 13.1 7.55 1,350.00 450
21,300 7,100 12.6 7.3 1,420.00 466
350×350 32,800 11,200 15.1 8.84 1,910.00 646
34,900 11,800 14.6 8.48 2,030.00 669
39,800 13,600 15.2 8.89 2,280.00 776
400×400 66,600 22,400 17.5 10.1 3,330.00 1,120.00

Medium Flange Series

steel pic2 - I-Beam Vs H-Beam

Classification Standard cross-section Cross-sectional Unit mass
(Height × Flange width) dimensionsmm area(cm3 (kg/m)
H×B t1 t2 r
200×150 194×150 6 9 8 38.11 29.9
250×175 244×175 7 11 13 55.49 43.6
300×200 294×200 8 12 13 71.05 55.8
350×250 340×250 9 14 13 99.53 78.1
400×300 390×300 10 16 13 133.3 105
450×300 440×300 11 18 13 153.9 121
500×300 482×300 11 15 13 141.2 111
488×300 11 18 13 159.2 125
600×300 582×300 12 17 13 169.2 133
588×300 12 20 13 187.2 147
594×302 14 23 13 217.1 170
700×300 692×300 13 20 18 207.5 163
700×300 13 24 18 231.5 182
800×300 792×300 14 22 18 239.5 188
800×300 14 26 18 263.5 207
900×300 *890×299 15 23 18 266.9 210
900×300 16 28 18 305.8 240
*912×302 18 34 18 360.1 283
Classification Reference
(Height × Flange width) Second moment Radius of gyration Section
of area(cm4) of area(cm) modulus(cm3)
lx ly ix iy zx zy
200×150 2,630 507 8.3 3.65 271 67.6
250×175 6,040 984 10.4 4.21 495 112
300×200 11,100 1,600 12.5 4.75 756 160
350×250 21,200 3,650 14.6 6.05 1,250 292
400×300 37,900 7,200 16.9 7.35 1,940 480
450×300 54,700 8,110 18.9 7.26 2,490 540
500×300 58,300 6,760 20.3 6.92 2,420 450
68,900 8,110 20.8 7.14 2,820 540
600×300 98,900 7,660 24.2 6.73 3,400 511
114,000 9,010 24.7 6.94 3,890 601
134,000 10,600 24.8 6.98 4,500 700
700×300 168,000 9,020 28.5 6.59 4,870 601
197,000 10,800 29.2 6.83 5,640 721
800×300 248,000 9,920 32.2 6.44 6,270 661
286,000 11,700 33 6.67 7,160 781
900×300 339,000 10,300 35.6 6.2 7,610 687
404,000 12,600 36.4 6.43 8,990 842
491,000 15,700 36.9 6.59 10,800 1.04

Narrow Flange Series

steel pic3 - I-Beam Vs H-Beam

Classification Standard cross-section Cross-sectional Unit mass
(Height × Flange width) dimensionsmm area(cm3 (kg/m)
H×B t1 t2 r
200×100 *198×99 4.5 7 8 22.69 17.8
200×100 5.5 8 8 26.67 20.9
250×125 248×124 5 8 8 31.99 25.1
250×125 6 9 8 36.97 29
300×150 298×149 5.5 8 13 40.8 32
300×150 6.5 9 13 46.78 36.7
350×175 346×174 6 9 13 52.45 41.2
350×175 7 11 13 62.91 49.4
400×200 396×199 7 11 13 71.41 56.1
400×200 8 13 13 83.37 65.4
450×200 446×199 8 12 13 82.97 65.1
450×200 9 14 13 95.43 74.9
500×200 496×199 9 14 13 99.29 77.9
500×200 10 16 13 112.3 88.2
*506×201 11 19 13 129.3 102
600×200 596×199 10 15 13 117.8 92.5
600×200 11 17 13 131.7 103
*606×201 12 20 13 149.8 118
Classification Reference
(Height × Flange width) Second moment Radius of gyration Section
of area(cm4) of area(cm) modulus(cm3)
lx ly ix iy zx zy
200×100 1,540 113 8.25 2.24 156 22.9
1,810 134 8.23 2.24 181 26.7
250×125 3,450 255 10.4 2.82 278 41.1
3,960 294 10.4 2.82 317 47
300×150 6,320 442 12.4 3.29 424 59.3
7,210 508 12.4 3.29 481 67.7
350×175 11,000 791 14.5 3.88 638 91
13,500 984 14.6 3.96 771 112
400×200 19,800 1,450 16.6 4.5 999 145
23,500 1,740 16.8 4.56 1.17 174
450×200 28,100 1,580 18.4 4.36 1,260 159
32,900 1,870 18.6 4.43 1,460 187
500×200 40,800 1,840 20.3 4.31 1,650 185
46,800 2,140 20.4 4.36 1,870 214
55,500 2,580 20.7 4.46 2,190 256
600×200 66,600 1,980 23.8 4.1 2,240 199
75,600 2,270 24 4.16 2,520 227
88,300 2,720 24.3 4.26 2,910 270
  • 1. When ordering, please specify actual dimensions(H×B×t1/t2×length).
  • 2. The sizes marked * are not constantly being rolled, so please inquire when ordering.
  • 3. Please talk to us in advance about turnaround times and specifications (bending, shot blasting, etc.).
  • 4. Standard length is 6 m or more with 500 mm pitch up to 24 m, but for orders over 15 m, please talk to us before ordering.

What is the difference between I-beam and H-beam?

I-beam vs H-beam: flange

I-beam: the inner surface of the upper and lower flange of I-beam is inclined, generally 1:6, which makes the flange thin on the outside and thick on the inside
H-beam: the flange of H-beam is of equal thickness, the inner surface of flange has no inclination, and the upper and lower surfaces are parallel.

I-beam vs H-beam: Section

I-beam: I-shaped steel, whether ordinary or light, has relatively high and narrow cross-section dimensions, so the moment of inertia of two main sleeves of the cross-section is quite different. Therefore, it can only be directly used for members bending in the web plane or forming lattice members. It is not suitable for axial compression members or members bending perpendicular to the web plane, which makes it difficult to use It has great limitations in the scope of application.
H-beam: H-beam is a kind of high-efficiency and economic profile (other cold-formed thin-walled steel, profiled steel, etc.), because of the reasonable section shape, they can make the steel more high performance and improve the cutting capacity. Different from the ordinary I-type, the flange of H-beam is widened, and the inner and outer surfaces are usually parallel, so it is easy to connect with other components by high-strength bolts. The size of H-beam is not the same The structure is reasonable and the models are complete, which is convenient for design and selection (except for I-shaped steel for crane beam).

I-beam vs H-beam: types of cross sections

I-beam: I-beams are all rolled sections. Due to the poor production process, the inner edge of flange has a slope of 1:10.
H-beam: The flange of H-beam is of equal thickness, with rolling section and combined section composed of three plates welded. The rolling of H-beam is different from that of ordinary I-beam, which only uses one set of horizontal roller. Because of its wide flange and no inclination (or very small inclination), it is necessary to add a set of vertical roller for rolling at the same time. Therefore, its rolling process and equipment are more complex than ordinary rolling mill. It can be produced in China The maximum height of rolled H-beam is 800mm, which is higher than that of welded section.

I-beam vs H-beam: stress

I-beam: The side length of I-beam is small and the height is large, so it can only bear the force in one direction. I-beam, as the name shows, is a kind of I-shaped section steel. The inner surface of the upper and lower flange has an inclination of 1:6, which makes the flange thin outside and thick inside. Therefore, the section characteristics of I-beam in two main planes are very different, and it is difficult to give full play to the strength characteristics in application There are also thickened I-beams in the field, but the structure of I-beam has determined its short plate of torsion resistance.
H-beam: H-beam has deep groove, large thickness, and can bear the force in two directions. All parts of H-beam are arranged at right angles, so H-beam has the advantages of strong bending resistance, simple construction, cost saving and light structure weight in all directions, and has been widely used.

I-beam vs H-beam: Usage

I-beam: I-beam can only be used for beams. I-beam is used as HN steel.
H-beam: H-beam can only be used for structural load-bearing columns. HN is the H-beam whose height and flange width ratio is greater than or equal to 2, which is mainly used for beams. HW is the H-beam whose height and flange width are basically equal. It is mainly used for steel core columns in reinforced concrete frame structures, also known as rigid steel columns. It is mainly used for columns in steel structures. HM is the H-beam whose height and flange width ratio is about 1.33 ~ 1.75, which is mainly used in steel columns In structure: used as steel frame column, used as frame beam in frame structure bearing dynamic load. For example: equipment platform.

I-beam vs H-beam: weight

Under the same specification, the weight of H-beam is lighter than that of I-beam.

Source: China Stainless Steel Beam Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.steeljrv.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

If you want to have more information about the article or you want to share your opinion with us, contact us at sales@steeljrv.com

Summary
i beam vs h beam - I-Beam Vs H-Beam
Article Name
I-Beam Vs H-Beam
Description
Sometimes people will ask what is the difference between I-beam and H-beam, and how to distinguish them.
Author
Publisher Name
www.steeljrv.com
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