Industrial Standards of Pipe Fittings

What are Industrial Standards of Pipe Fittings?

The manufacture and installation of pipe fittings are tightly regulated by various standards and codes.

The integrity of pipe fittings and flanges in the piping system depends on various principles used in design, construction and maintenance of the entire system. The components of pipe fittings are made in different materials, in a variety of types and sizes and hence should be manufactured according to common national standards or according to manufacturers’ proprietary item. Some manufacturers also use their own internal piping standards based upon national and industry sector standards.

Difference between “Standard” and “Codes”:
Piping codes imply the requirements of design, fabrication, use of materials, tests and inspection of various pipe and piping system. It has a limited jurisdiction defined by the code. On the other hand, piping standards imply application design and construction rules and requirements for pipe fittings like adapters, flanges, sleeves, elbows, union, tees, valves etc. Like a code, it also has a limited scope defined by the standard.
Factors affecting standards:
“Standards” on pipe fittings are based on certain factors like as follows:

  • Pressure-temperature ratings
  • Size
  • Design
  • Coatings
  • Materials
  • Marking
  • End connections
  • Dimensions and tolerances
  • Threading
  • Pattern taper etc.

Types of pipe fitting standards:

Some widely used pipe fitting standards are as follows:

ASME: 
American Society for Mechanical Engineers

This is one of the reputed organizations in the world developing codes and standards.

The schedule number for pipe fitting starts from ASME/ANSI B16. The various classifications of ASME/ANSI B16 standards for different pipe fittings are as follows:

  • ASME/ANSI B16.1 – 1998 – Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
  • ASME/ANSI B16.3 – 1998 – Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings
  • ASME/ANSI B16.4 – 1998 – Cast Iron Threaded Fittings
  • ASME/ANSI B16.5 – 1996 – Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
  • ASME/ANSI B16.11 – 2001 – Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded
  • ASME/ANSI B16.14 – 1991 – Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings and Locknuts with Pipe Threads
  • ASME/ANSI B16.15 – 1985 (R1994) – Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings
  • ASME/ANSI B16.25 – 1997 – Buttwelding Ends
  • ASME/ANSI B16.36 – 1996 – Orifice Flanges etc.

This is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world. It was originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

  • ASTM A105 / A105M – Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications
  • ASTM A234 / A234M – Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service
  • ASTM A403 / A403M – Specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
  • ASTM A420 / A420M – Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low-Temperature Service

AWWA About – Established in 1881, the American Water Works Association is the largest nonprofit, scientific and educational association dedicated to managing and treating water, the world’s most important resource.

  • AWWA C110 – Ductile-Iron and Gray-Iron Fittings, 3 Inch Through 48 Inch (75 mm Through 1200 mm), for Water and Other Liquids
  • AWWA C208 – Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings

The American National Standards Institute
ANSI is a private, non-profit organization. Its main function is to administer and coordinate the U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system. It provides a forum for development of American national standards. ANSI assigns “schedule numbers”. These numbers classify wall thicknesses for different pressure uses.

MSS STANDARDS 
Manufacturers Standardization Society

The Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS) of the Valve and Fittings Industry is a non-profit technical association organized for development and improvement of industry, national and international codes and standards for: Valves, Valve Actuators, Valve Modification, Pipe Fittings, Pipe Hangers, Pipe Supports, Flanges and Associated Seals

  • MSS SP-43 – Wrought Stainless Steel ButtWelding Fittings Including Reference to Other Corrosion Resistant Materials
  • MSS SP-75 – Specifications for High Test Wrought Buttwelding Fittings
  • MSS SP-73 – Brazing Joints for Copper and Copper Alloy Pressure Fittings
  • MSS SP-83 – Class 3000 Steel Pipe Unions, Socket-Welding and Threaded
  • MSS SP-97 – Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings — Socket Welding, Threaded, and Buttwelding Ends
  • MSS SP-106 – Cast Copper Alloy Flanges and Flanged Fittings Class 125,150, and 300
  • MSS SP-119 – Factory-Made Wrought Belled End Socket Welding Fittings

Difference between “Standard” and “Codes”:

Piping codes imply the requirements of design, fabrication, use of materials, tests and inspection of various pipe and piping system. It has a limited jurisdiction defined by the code. On the other hand, piping standards imply application design and construction rules and requirements for pipe fittings like adapters, flanges, sleeves, elbows, union, tees, valves etc. Like a code, it also has a limited scope defined by the standard.

Factors affecting standards:

“Standards” on pipe fittings are based on certain factors like as follows:

  • Pressure-temperature ratings
  • Size
  • Design
  • Coatings
  • Materials
  • Marking
  • End connections
  • Dimensions and tolerances
  • Threading
  • Pattern taper etc.

BSP is the U.K. standard for pipe fittings. This refers to a family of standard screw thread types for interconnecting and sealing pipe ends by mating an external (male) with an internal (female) thread. This has been adopted internationally. It is also known as British Standard Pipe Taper threads (BSPT )or British Standard Pipe Parallel (Straight) threads (BSPP ). While the BSPT achieves pressure tight joints by the threads alone, the BSPP requires a sealing ring.

This is the Japanese industrial standards or the standards used for industrial activities in Japan for pipe, tube and fittings and published through Japanese Standards Associations.

National Pipe Thread is a U.S. standard straight (NPS) threads or for tapered (NPT) threads. This is the most popular US standard for pipe fittings. NPT fittings are based on the internal diameter (ID) of the pipe fitting.

We are manufacturer of Flange bolts & Nuts and supply high quality

  • A193 = This specification covers alloy and stainless steel bolting material for pressure vessels, Valves, flanges, and fittings for high temperature or high pressure service, or other special purpose applications.
  • A320 = Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service.
  • A194 = Standard specification for nuts in many different material types.

AN:
Here, “A” stands for Army and “N” stands for Navy

The AN standard was originally designed for the U.S. Military. Whenever, a pipe fitting is AN fittings, it means that the fittings are measured on the outside diameter of the fittings, that is, in 1/16 inch increments.

For example, an AN 4 fitting means a fitting with an external diameter of approximately 4/16″ or ¼”. It is to be noted that approximation is important because AN external diameter is not a direct fit with an equivalent NPT thread.

Dash (-) size

Dash size is the standard used to refer to the inside diameter of a hose. This indicates the size by a two digit number which represents the relative ID in sixteenths of an inch. This is also used interchangeably with AN fittings. For example, a Dash “8” fitting means an AN 8 fitting.

ISO is the industrial pipe, tube and fittings standards and specifications from the International Organization for Standardization. ISO standards are numbered. They have format as follows:

“ISO[/IEC] [IS] nnnnn[:yyyy] Title” where

  • nnnnn: standard number
  • yyyy: year published, and
  • Title: describes the subject
A standard hose guide is given
Hose Size In Nominal ID Inch Dash Size Standard Dash Size
1/4 3/16 -04
3/8 5/16 -06
1/2 13/32 -08
3/4 5/8 -12
1 7/8 -16
1 ½
1 ¼ 1 1/8 -20

Flanges: Ratings in Classes and Pressure Numbers (PN)

Flange Class 150 300 600 900 1500 2500
Flange Pressure Number, PN 20 50 100 150 250 420

How a Butt Weld Fitting is Made?

Buttweld pipe fittings comprises of long radius elbow, concentric reducer, eccentric reducers and Tees etc. Butt weld stainless steel and carbon steel fittings are an important part of industrial piping system to change direction, branch off or to mechanically join equipment to the system. Buttweld fittings are sold in nominal pipe sizes with specified pipe schedule. BW fitting’s dimensions and tolerances are defined as per ASME standard B16.9.

A butt weld pipe fitting is made by the process of hot forming that includes bending and forming to shape. The starting material of butt weld fitting is a pipe that is cut to length, heated and molded into specific shapes by means of dies. Heat treatment is also done to remove residual stresses and obtain desired mechanical properties.

There are numerous processes for manufacturing butt weld fittings, several examples listed as follows.

Pipe Tees:

Extrusion method (Hot Forming)

The hot-extrusion process consists of enclosing a piece of metal, heated to forging temperature, in a chamber called a “container” having a die at one end with an opening of the shape of the desired finished section, and applying pressure to the metal through the opposite end of the container. The metal is forced through the opening, the shape of which it assumes in cross-section, as the metal flows plastically under the great pressures used.

tee hotforming - Industrial Standards of Pipe Fittings

Tees using raw material with a bigger diameter than the finished product, the branch outlet is extruded from pipe while the main body is being pressed. The outlet’s wall thickness can also be adjusted as needed. Applied to Tees with large diameters, heavy wall thickness and/or special material with challenging workability that cannot be manufactured using the hydraulic bulge method.

One of the most common manufacturing methods for manufacturing Elbows from pipes. After heating the raw material, it is pushed over a die called “mandrel” which allows the pipe to expand and bend simultaneously.

Elbows manufactured by using hot mandrel bending have advantages of small thickness deviation and shorter bending radius than those of any other bending method type.

2016527199137833606 - Industrial Standards of Pipe Fittings

Pipe Caps:

Deep Drawing method

One of the most common manufacturing methods for caps, where plate is cut out in a circle and formed by deep drawing.

cap hotforming - Industrial Standards of Pipe Fittings

Deep drawing is the manufacturing process of forming sheet metal stock, called blanks, into geometrical or irregular shapes that are more than half their diameters in depth. Deep drawing involves stretching the metal blank around a plug and then moving it into a moulding cutter called a die.

A drawing press can be used for forming sheet metal into different shapes and the finished shape depends on the final position that the blanks are pushed down in. The metal used in deep drawing must be malleable as well as resistant to stress and tension damage.

Forging may be performed under hammers, in mechanical presses and upsetters or by a method known as roll forging. Pressing generally includes the manufacture of forged articles in hydraulic presses. Extrusion usually is performed in hydraulic presses which force the hot steel through a die. Rolling is performed in rolling mills of a variety of types. The two principal reasons for perform metal forming at elevated temperatures (hot working) are to reduce the forming loads through the reduction of the resistance of the steel to deformation, and to develop preferred metallurgical structures for strength and ductility of the finish products. The most appropriate manufacturing method of a product will be decided with consideration of its material, sizes, shape, use, standards and other properties.

Production process of butt weld fittings

201651811462029666 - Industrial Standards of Pipe Fittings

Production process of butt weld fittings includes a series of steps like Annealing, Straightening, Pickiling & Passivation and Polishing. These bult weld fittings are produced using latest technology, ensuring excellent strength and long service life. The process needs a lesser amount of heat treatments to ensure better physical properties.

The series of steps involved in the manufacturing Process of But weld Fittings are given in a detailed view below:
Annealing: Annealing is also known as heat treatment, which plays an active role in the production. In this step, the tubes are carried out in fully automated and conveyor to heat them at certain temperature. Once the tubes get heated, they immediately quench in water.
Straightening: The tubes are straightened with the help of straightening machine to provide a high degree of straightness in this step.
Pickling: The process of Pickling refers to the removal of high temperature scale and adjacent low chromium layer of metal from the surface of stainless steel.
Passivation: Passivation is the process of treating the surface of stainless steels in order to eliminate the contaminants from the metal. The process also helps in promoting the formation of a continuous passive film on a freshly created surface.
Polishing: The final step, is named as Polishing that reflects the wonderful quality, high aesthetic & hygienic value and high durability of bult weld fittings. Polishing is a essential step to gain excellent features for meeting the varied demands of clients.

Production process of elbow: hot forming

Production process of elbow: cold forming

Production process of elbow: Non-metallic single-welding

Production process of elbow: pressing stereotype

Process of tee: push stereotype

Production process of tee: Hot-drawing Forming

Production process of reducer: Pressing Stereotype

Production process of reducer: Pressure Molding

Production process of pipe cap: pressing stereotype

Production process of lap joint stub end: Pressure Molding

Sizes and Dimensions of Pipe Fittings

Pipe fittings dimensions are in either metric or Standard English. Because pipe fitting covers Pipe Fitting Dimensions several aspects, only the most common pipe fitting sizes can be given here.

How are pipe fittings measured?
Pipe fittings are measured by their diameter, wall thickness (known as “schedule”), and shape or configuration. (Fittings are also defined by their material grade and whether they are welded or seamless.)
Diameter refers to outside diameter of a pipe or fitting.
The North American standard is known as Nominal Pipe Size (NPS). The International Standard is known as Diameter Nominal (DN). Pipes and fittings are actually made in similar sizes around the world: they are just labeled differently.
From ½ in to 12 inch “Nominal Pipe Size”, outside diameters are slightly larger than indicated size; inside diameters get smaller as schedules grow.
From 14 in and larger “Nominal Pipe Size”, outside diameters are exactly as indicated size; inside diameters get smaller as schedules grow.
As with other North American standards (inch, foot, yard, mile, …), many pipe standards (diameters up to 12 inch and wall thickness) are based on historical precedents (a toolmaker’s dies during US Civil War) rather than a “scientific” method.

Schedule Numbers

The schedule numbers are used by the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) to denote wall thickness. The schedule numbers encompass all pipe dimensions beginning at NPS 1/8” up NPS 36”. Note that this configuration is only for fittings that match with a particular ANSI schedule number.

Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures.

  • Schedule, often shortened as sch, is a North American standard that refers to wall thickness of a pipe or pipe fitting. Higher schedules mean thicker walls that can resist higher pressures.
  • Pipe standards define these wall thicknesses: SCH 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS and XXS. (S following a number is for stainless steel. Sizes without an S are for carbon steel.)
  • Higher schedules are heavier, require more material and are therefore more costly to make and install.

What does “schedule” mean for pipe fittings?
Schedule, often shortened as SCH, is a North American standard that refers to wall thickness of a pipe or pipe fitting.
What is schedule 40, SCH80?
Higher schedules mean thicker walls that can resist higher pressures.
Pipe standards define these wall thicknesses: SCH 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS and XXS. 
(S following a number is for stainless steel. Sizes without an S are for carbon steel.)
Higher schedules are heavier, require more material and are therefore more costly to make and install.

Why are fittings sometimes thicker and heavier than pipes to which they are connected?
Fittings are sometimes thicker than their connecting pipes to meet performance requirements or due to manufacturing reasons.
Due to fitting geometry, stress is very different when compared to a pipe. Using extra material is often necessary to compensate for such additional stress, especially for tees and tight curve elbows.
Fitting manufacturers may not always stock plates or pipes for all metal grades or sizes. When responding to an order, manufacturers always use the right metal or alloy, but sometimes made with next-higher available plate or pipe size while still respecting specified inside diameters.

Tolerance of Pipe Fittings

Butt-welding is the process of joining two pieces of material together along a single edge in a single plane.

This process can be used on many types of materials, though metal and thermoplastics are the most common. When two sheets of steel are laid side-by-side and joined together along a single joint, this is an example of butt-welding.

  • Pipe Bend size range: 

    The pipe bend is used to change the direction of run of pipe.it advantage is can matach long distance transition requirements,so it is commonly that bends dimension according to customer design.

    pipe bend design - Industrial Standards of Pipe Fittings
    Constants for Pipe Bends:

    Formula:L = R x BL = Length of pipe requiredR = Radius of bendB = Constant from table used to find “L”L =30 x 1.5705 =47.115 in.or 47-1/8”

    Standards accord to:

    • ASME B16.9
    • ASME B16.28
    • ANSI/ASME B16.25
    • MSS SP-97

    Pressure: SCH5 to SCH160

    Bending radius(R): R=3D5D7D and 12D
    Bending angle (θ):15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°, 135°, 180°
    Outer diamete(D): D≤1800mm
    Wall thickness(T): T≤120mm
    Straight Length (L): The length between two ends general from 300mm-1500mm

    Example: Find the length of pipe required to make a 90 bend with a radius of 30″

    Nominal pipe
    DN size
    Outside Diameter at Bevel Center to End

    D1

    D2

    C

    M

    Series A Series B Series A Series B
    20×15
    26.9
    25
    21.3
    18
    29
    29
    25×20
    25×15
    33.7
    33.7
    32
    32
    26.9
    21.3
    25
    18
    38
    38
    38
    38
    32×25
    32×20
    32×15
    42.4
    42.4
    42.4
    38
    38
    38
    33.7
    26.9
    21.3
    32
    25
    18
    48
    48
    48
    48
    48
    48
    40×32
    40×25
    40×20
    40×15
    48.3
    48.3
    48.3
    48.3
    45
    45
    45
    45
    42.4
    33.7
    26.7
    21.3
    38
    32
    25
    18
    57
    57
    57
    57
    57
    57
    57
    57
    50×40
    50×32
    50×25
    50×20
    60.3
    60.3
    60.3
    60.3
    57
    57
    57
    57
    48.3
    42.4
    33.7
    26.9
    45
    38
    32
    25
    64
    64
    64
    64
    60
    57
    51
    44
    65×50
    65×40
    65×32
    65×25
    76.1(73)
    76.1(73)
    76.1(73)
    76.1(73)
    76
    76
    76
    76
    60.3
    48.3
    42.4
    33.7
    57
    45
    38
    32
    76
    76
    76
    76
    70
    67
    64
    57
    80×65
    80×50
    80×40
    80×32
    88.9
    88.9
    88.9
    88.9
    89
    89
    89
    89
    76.1(73)
    60.3
    48.3
    42.4
    76
    57
    45
    38
    86
    86
    86
    86
    83
    76
    73
    70
    90×80
    90×65
    90×50
    90×40
    101.6
    101.6
    101.6
    101.6



    88.9
    76.1(73)
    60.3
    48.3



    95
    95
    95
    95
    92
    89
    83
    79
    100×90
    100×80
    100×65
    100×50
    100×40
    114.3
    114.3
    114.3
    114.3
    114.3

    108
    108
    108
    108
    101.6
    88.9
    76.1(73)
    60.3
    48.3

    89
    76
    57
    45
    105
    105
    105
    105
    105
    102
    98
    95
    89
    86
    125×100
    125×90
    125×80
    125×65
    125×50
    139.7
    139.7
    139.7
    139.7
    133
    – 
    133
    133
    133
    114.3
    101.6
    88.9
    76.1(73)
    60.3
    108

    89
    76
    57
    124
    124
    124
    124
    124
    117
    114
    111
    108
    105
    150×125
    150×100
    150×90
    150×80
    150×65
    168.3
    168.3
    168.3
    168.3
    168.3
    159
    159 

    159
    159
    139.7
    114.3
    101.6
    88.9
    76.1(73)
    133
    108

    89
    76
    143
    143
    143
    143
    143
    137
    130
    127
    124
    121
    200×150
    200×125
    200×100
    200×90
    219.1
    219.1
    219.1
    219.1
    219
    219
    219
    168.3
    139.7
    114.3
    101.6
    159
    133
    108
    178
    178
    178
    178
    168
    162
    156
    152
    200×200
    200×150
    200×125
    200×100
    273.0
    273.0
    273.0
    273.0
    273
    273
    273
    273
    219.1
    168.3
    139.7
    114.3
    219
    159
    133
    108
    216
    216
    216
    216
    208
    194
    191
    184
    300×250
    300×200
    300×150
    323.9
    323.9
    323.9
    325
    325
    325
    273.0
    219.1
    168.3
    273
    219
    159
    254
    254
    254
    241
    229
    219
    300×125
    323.9
    325
    139.7
    133
    254
    216
    350×300
    350×250
    350×200
    350×150
    355.6
    355.6
    355.6
    355.6
    377
    377
    377
    377
    323.9
    273.0
    219.1
    168.3
    325
    273
    219
    159
    279
    279
    279
    279
    270
    257
    248
    238
    400×350
    400×300
    400×250
    400×200
    400×150
    406.4
    406.4
    406.4
    406.4
    406.4
    426
    426
    426
    426
    426
    355.6
    323.9
    273.0
    219.1
    168.3
    377
    325
    273
    219
    159
    305
    305
    305
    305
    305
    305
    295
    283
    273
    264
    450×400
    450×350
    450×300
    450×250
    450×200
    457.2
    457.2
    457.2
    457.2
    457.2
    478
    478
    478
    478
    478
    406.4
    355.6
    323.9
    273.0
    219.1
    426
    377
    325
    273
    219
    343
    343
    343
    343
    343
    330
    330
    321
    308
    298
    500×450
    500×100
    500×350
    500×300
    500×250
    500×200
    508.0
    508.0
    508.0
    508.0
    508.0
    508.0
    529
    529
    529
    529
    529
    529
    457.2
    406.4
    355.6
    323.9
    273.0
    219.1
    478
    426
    377
    325
    273
    219
    381
    381
    381
    381
    381
    381
    368
    356
    356
    346
    333
    324
    550×500
    550×450
    550×400
    559
    559
    559


    508
    457
    406


    419
    419
    419
    406
    394
    381
    600×550
    600×550
    600×450
    610
    610
    610

    630
    630
    559
    508
    457

    530
    480
    432
    432
    432
    432
    432
    419
    650×600
    650×550
    650×500
    660
    660
    660


    610
    559
    508


    495
    495
    495
    483
    470
    457
    700×650
    700×600
    700×550
    711
    711
    711

    720
    660
    610
    559

    630
    521
    521
    521
    521
    508
    495
    750×700
    750×650
    750×600
    762
    762
    762


    711
    660
    610


    559
    559
    559
    546
    546
    533
    800×750
    800×700
    800×650
    813
    813
    813

    820
    762
    711
    660

    720
    597
    597
    597
    584
    572
    572
    850×800
    850×750
    850×700
    864
    864
    864


    813
    762
    711


    635
    635
    635
    622
    610
    597
    900×850
    900×800
    900×750
    914
    914
    914

    920
    864
    813
    762

    820 
    673
    673
    673
    660
    648
    635
    950×900
    950×850
    950×800
    965
    965
    965


    914
    864
    813


    711
    711
    711
    711
    698
    686
    1000×950
    1000×900
    1000×8500
    1016
    1016
    1016

    1020
    965
    914
    864

    920 
    749
    749
    749
    749
    737
    724
    1000×1000
    1050×950
    1050×900
    1067
    1067
    1067


    1016
    965
    914


    762
    762
    762
    711
    711
    711
    1100×1050
    1100×1000
    1100×950
    1118
    1118
    1118

    1120
    1067
    1016
    965

    1020 
    813
    813
    813
    762
    749
    737
    1150×1100
    1150×1050
    1150×1000
    1168
    1168
    1168


    1118
    1067
    1016


    851
    851
    851
    800
    787
    775
    1200×1150
    1200×1100
    1200×1050
    1220
    1220
    1220

    1220
    1168
    1118
    1067

    1120 
    889
    889
    889
    838
    838
    813
    Nominal pipe size Outside Diameter at Bevel Center to End
    D C M
    DN INCH Series A Series B
    15
    1/2
    21.3
    18
    25
    20
    3/4
    26.9
    25
    29
    25
    1
    33.7
    32
    38
    32
    11/4
    42.4
    38
    48
    40
    11/2
    48.3
    45
    57
    50
    2
    60.3
    57
    64
    65
    21/2
    76.1(73)
    76
    76
    80
    3
    88.9
    89
    86
    90
    31/2
    101.6
    95
    100
    4
    114.3
    108
    105
    125
    5
    139.7
    133
    124
    150
    6
    168.3
    159
    143
    200
    8
    219.1
    219
    178
    250
    10
    273.0
    273
    216
    300
    12
    323.9
    325
    254
    350
    14
    355.6
    377
    279
    400
    16
    406.4
    426
    305
    450
    18
    457.2
    478
    343
    500
    20
    508.0
    529
    381
    550
    22
    559
    419
    600
    24
    610
    630
    432
    650
    26
    660
    495
    700
    28
    711
    720
    521
    750
    30
    762
    559
    800
    32
    813
    820
    597
    850
    34
    864
    635
    900
    36
    914
    920
    673
    950
    38
    965
    711
    1000
    40
    1016
    1020
    749
    1050
    42
    1067
    762
    711
    1100
    44
    1118
    1120
    813
    762
    1150
    46
    1168
    851
    800
    1200
    48
    1220
    1220
    889
    838
pipe fittings tolerance - Industrial Standards of Pipe Fittings

Alignment tolerances are concerned with the way that the ends of a fitting are cut. Exaggerated distortions are shown for clarity in the diagram below.

Butt Welding Pipe Fitting Draw - Industrial Standards of Pipe Fittings
Tolerances are in millimeters. mm -ASME / ANSI B16.9
All Fittings 90, 45
Elbows and Tees
Reducers Caps 180 Returns Angularity Tolerance
Nominal
Pipe Size
Outside
Diameter
at Bevel
Inside
Diameter
at End
Wall
Thickness
Center to End Dimension Overall
Length
Overall
Length
Center to
Center
Dimension
Back to
face
Dimension
Alignment
of Ends
Nominal
Pipe Size
off
Angle
off
Plane
(in) D t A.B.C.M H E O K U (in) Q P
1/2to 21/2 +1.52-0.76 0.76 Not Less Than 87.5% of Nominal Thickness 1.52 1.52 3.05 6.35 6.35 0.76 1/to 4 0.76 1.51
3 to 31/2 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 3.05 6.35 6.35 0.75 5 to 8 1.52 3.05
4 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 3.05 6.35 6.36 0.76 10 to 12 2.29 4.83
5 to 8 +2.29-1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 6.35 6.35 6.35 0.76 14 to 16 2.29 6.35
10 to 18 +4.06-3.05 3.05 2.29 2.29 6.35 9.65 6.35 1.52 18 to 24 3.05 9.65
20 to 24 +6.35-4.83 4.83 2.29 2.29 6.35 9.65 6.35 1.52 26 to 30 4.83 9.65
26 to 30 +6.35-4.83 4.83 3.05 4.83 9.65 32 to 36 4.83 12.7
32 to 36 +6.35-4.83 4.83 4.83 4.83 9.65

Welding Bevel acc.to ASME / ANSI B16.9 and ASME / ANSI B16.28

Our in-hourse R&D team developed bevel ends equipment are good using in thickness 2mm to 20mm pipe fittings, guarantee high efficiency and high quality.

Send us your technical drawings: Yaang will supply you with whatever flanges you are looking for.

pipe fittings welded end - Industrial Standards of Pipe Fittings

Nominal wall Thickness : t End Preparation
t<5mm (for austenitic alloy steel
t<4mm)
Cut square or slightly chamfer
at manufacturer ‘ s option
5<t<22mm
(4<t<22mm)
Plain Bevel as in sketch ( a ) above
t>22mm Compound Bevel as in sketch ( b ) above

Source: China Pipe Fittings Manufacturer – Yaang pipe fitting Industry Co., Limited (www.steeljrv.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

If you want to have more information about the article or you want to share your opinion with us, contact us at sales@steeljrv.com

Please notice that you might be interested in the other technical articles we’ve published:

  • Tips for selecting expansion joints

  • What is the difference between a steel pipe and a steel tube

  • Engineering Specification for Pressure Test of Piping System

  • How to choose a valve and valve end connection type

  • How to test pipe fitting

  • Manufacturing process of cold rolled steel pipe

  • Development trend of high pressure pipe fittings

  • How to get high quality flanges

  • How to get high quality pipe fittings

  • How to get high quality bellow expansion joints

  • How to get high quality alloy steel pipes

  • HOW TO GET HIGH QUALITY STEEL PIPES

  • WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LATERAL TEE AND TRUE WYE

  • WHAT ARE OUTLET PIPE FITTINGS

  • What are pipe caps

  • WHEN TO USE A SPECTACLE BLIND FLANGE

  • HOW TO GET HIGH QUALITY BOILER TUBES

  • The difference between pipe nipple and pipe coupling

  • How to get high quality pipe coupling

  • How to get high quality pipe elbow

References:

  • https://www.yaang.com
  • https://www.astm.org/Standards/A234.htm
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASME
  • https://www.awwa.org/
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Standard_Pipe
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_Industrial_Standards

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