Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate

Plate is one of the semi-finished titanium alloys. It is widely used in aerospace, marine, chemical and other fields to manufacture key components such as pressure vessels, sleeves, casings and skins. The hot rolling method produces a strong deformation texture in the rolling process. The near-type high-temperature titanium alloy is mainly composed of a phase and a small amount of P phase under the chamber, so the rolling texture of the plate The type is mainly related to the a-phase deformation texture: due to the lower slip line of the hep a phase, it is difficult to plastically deform and easily form a strong deformation texture. When the titanium alloy has strong texture, it is different. The slip direction in the direction is different, and it shows a strong anisotropy, which will have an important influence on the mechanical properties of the material [7~10]. At present, the research on titanium alloy sheets at home and abroad is mainly concentrated. In the aspects of microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of thin sheets [10~13], the related research on titanium alloy thick plates is rarely reported.
TA32 titanium alloy is Ti-Al-Sn-Zr-Mo-Si-Nb-Ta series a high-temperature titanium alloy, which was developed by the Institute of Metal Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences according to the electron concentration theory. The alloy has a good thermal and thermal stability at 550 °C and can be used for blades, compressor discs and drums in high-pressure sections of aerospace engines. In recent years, the Institute of Metal Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has optimized the ratio of trace elements in alloys to achieve good short-term tensile, long-lasting and creep properties matching at 600~650 °C, as well as better superplastic forming. Performance has expanded the alloy’s further application in aerospace applications such as spacecraft. TA32 titanium alloy thick plate can be applied to the end frame, base and other parts of high-sonic aircraft. The stability of sheet structure and performance is one of the main factors to ensure the reliability of parts. Due to the limitations of the existing hot rolling process and equipment conditions in China, the total deformation of the high temperature titanium alloy thick plate from the slab to the finished product and the deformation of the single rolling pass are smaller than the thin plate, so that the microstructure, texture and material of the plate are The non-uniformity of mechanical properties tends to increase. Therefore, it is necessary to study the microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of TA32 titanium alloy thick plates, and provide theoretical basis and experimental basis for the preparation of TA32 titanium alloy thick plates and the optimization of mechanical properties of the plates.

1 Experimental method

The experimental material is TA32 alloy with thickness of 60 mm (Ti-5.6Al-3.4Sn-3.0Zr-0.7Mo-0.4Ta-0.4Nb-0.3Si, mass fraction, %). Hot rolled sheet finished product, alloy ingot (pt= 1010 ° C) Three times vacuum consumable arc melting was used, and a slab having a thickness of 150 mm was forged in a B single-phase region. After the slab is subjected to the grinding process, the finished sheet of 1000 mm x 2000 mm x 60 mm (thickness) is obtained after hot rolling, aligning and surface treatment in the a+|3 two-phase region.

Figure 1 is a schematic view of the sampling position of the sheet. The rolling direction of the sheet is defined as RD, the transverse direction is defined as TD, and the direction perpendicular to the RD-TD plane is defined as ND. Metallographic samples were taken from the surface of the sheet, 1/4 and 1/2 thickness, and the microstructures of the RD-ND plane (R plane), TD-ND plane (T plane) and RD-TD plane (N surface) were observed. . The samples were mechanically ground and polished, then etched with Krolls reagent and microstructured on an Axiovert 200MAT metallographic microscope. A rectangular specimen of 12 mm (RD) x 10 mm (TD) was cut at the thickness of the sheet, 1/4, 1/2 thickness, and ground with a No. 800 SiC sandpaper, and then subjected to a D8 Discover X-ray diffractometer (XRD). 0002}, {1010}, {1011} face diagram test, tube voltage 30 kV, tube current 20 mA. The processed rod-shaped tensile specimens were cut in different directions of the surface layer of the sheet, the thickness of 1/4 and 1/2, and the tensile properties at room temperature were tested on an AG-100kNG material testing machine. The tensile fracture morphology was observed by Nova Nano SEM 430 field emission scanning electron microscope. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data acquisition of the acceleration voltage of 15 kVo on the surface of the sheet and the thickness of 1/2 was performed by MAIA3 ultra-high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope. The EBSD data was analyzed and processed using HKL-Channel 5 software.

20191006140611 92925 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate

Fig.1 Schematic of the test direction and position of the TA32 thick plate (RD-rolling direction, ND-normal direction, TD-transverse direction)

2 Experimental results

2.1 Microstructure
The microstructure of the plates in different directions is shown in Figure 2. It can be seen that the microstructure of the sheet consists of a deformed slab a phase and a small amount of p phase, and a distinct rolling stream line can be observed. In the microstructures of the R and T planes, the a phase is distributed in the RD and TD directions (Fig. 2a and b). The a phase morphology on the N surface combines the characteristics of the T and R planes. In addition, an a-phase grain boundary elongated in the RD direction can be observed (Fig. 2c).
20191006142129 59666 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate

Fig.2 Microstructures of TA32 thick plate (a) RD-ND plane (b) TD-ND plane (c) RD-TD plane

2.2 Texture feature
The pole diagrams of phase a (0002) (1010) and (10 butyl 1) at different positions on the thickness section of the sheet were measured by XRD, as shown in Fig. 3. As can be seen from the figure, the orientation of the plate crystal base (0002) is mainly concentrated in the TD direction, which is a typical T-shaped texture with a maximum density of 4. From the surface layer of the sheet to the center, the a-phase c-axis gradually deviates from the TD direction. It can be seen from the pole figure of the bobbin surface (1010) that the (1010) orientation is mainly concentrated in the RD direction, and the intensity is not large, and the maximum pole density appears in the RD direction at the center of the sheet, and the strength is about 3. It can be seen from the pole figure of the pyramidal surface (1011) that no strong texture is observed on the crystal plane, and the orientation is relatively dispersed.

20191006143023 19391 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate

Fig.3 The pole figure distribution of TA32 thick plate
2.3 Tensile properties
The average values of the room temperature tensile test results of the sheets are shown in Table 1. As can be seen from Table 1, the yield strength of the sheet is 915 to 964 MPa, and the tensile strength is 983 to 1034 MPa. The tensile strength in both the TD and RD directions of the sheet gradually decreased from the surface layer to the center along the thickness direction of the sheet, and the reduction in the TD and RD directions was 4.3% and 4.9%, respectively. The strength is the smallest; the tensile strength in the TD and RD directions at the same position is substantially the same in the thickness direction of the sheet. The tensile strength in the ND direction of the sheet was within the fluctuation range of the tensile strength of RD and TD, but the tensile elongation and the shrinkage ratio were significantly lower than the other two directions.

Table 1 Tensile
properties at room temperature of TA32 thick plate

Direction

Position

Rpo.2 / MPa

/MPa

A/%

Z/%

TD

Surface

949

1TO6

16.0

29.5

1/4

941

1004

14.0

19.0

1/2

924

982

12.5

19.5

RD

Surface

964

1034

12.0

30.5

1/4

935

1002

13.8

26.0

1/2

915

983

13.8

23.0

ND

920

996

9.4

18.5

Note: Each datum is the average of two
data,
Rpo,2—yield strength, Rm一tensile
strength,
A ― longation after fracture, Z—eduction of area

2.4 Fracture morphology
Figure 4 is a low-fold morphology of the fracture at room temperature. It can be observed from the surface near the fracture position of the sample that when stretched in the RD or TD direction, the surface deformation direction of the sample near the fracture position is more obvious, and a distinct deformation flow line can be observed (Fig. 4a and b). When stretched in the ND direction, the surface morphology near the fracture of the sample is orange peel (Fig. 4c), indicating that the sample has poor plastic deformation along the axial direction of the tensile stress. Observing the surface of the fracture, it is found that the tensile fractures in the RD and TD directions have obvious shear lips, and the degree of necking is also significantly larger than the tensile fracture in the ND direction, which is different from the surface morphology of the fracture surface of the sample and the different directions in Table 1. The plasticity of the specimen is consistent. Fig. 5 is a high-power scanning electron micrograph of the tensile fracture. The cross-section of the tensile specimens in the two directions of RD and TD can observe dense tree nests, and the size of the dimples is different. Compared with the TD and RD directions, the dimples of the tensile fracture surface in the ND direction are shallow (Fig. 5c), and the river-like fracture morphology due to the B-phase tear of the slab a phase bundle can also be observed (Fig. 5d).

20191006143439 34083 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate

Fig.4 Macro (a~c) and fracture (d~f) morphologies of fracture samples along RD (a, d), TD (b, e) and ND (c, f)
20191006143500 27027 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate
Fig.5 Microstructures of fracture samples along RD (a), TD (b) and ND (c, d)

3 Analysis and discussion

3.1 Texture and its impact on microstructure
The TA32 titanium alloy is deformed by rolling to form a typical T-shaped texture (Fig. 3). Research [he showed that the rolling deformation process can be approximated as a plane strain state along the normal compressive stress of the sheet and along the rolling direction, so that the slip surface is parallel to the sheet surface, and the slip direction is parallel to the rolling. The direction of RDo is slightly smaller than the da value of the a-Ti (1.587) which is slightly smaller than the 1.633 of the ideal hep structure, and the cylinder {10l0}<1120> slip becomes its main slip system. Therefore, during the rolling process, the slip surface {1010} in the slip system tends to be parallel to the rolling surface of the sheet (N, while the slip direction <1120> tends to be parallel to the rolling direction. The (0002) crystal plane will tend to be in the lateral direction of the sheet to form a T-shaped texture. From the surface layer to the center of the sheet in Fig. 3, it can be seen that the strength of the texture is almost constant, but the (0002) crystal plane is deflected. This may be related to uneven deformation of the sheet during the rolling process.
The grain orientation of titanium alloy sheet will affect the morphology of the microstructure (5) 旳, as shown in Figure 6, after the TA32 titanium sheet is deformed by rolling, the main two kinds of microstructures are formed, one is parallel or similar to the rolling direction. Parallel to the straight-line a-phase structure, and the other is a wavy a-phase structure. Figure 7 shows the crystal orientations of two different microstructures and the polarograms of the corresponding regions. Among them, in Fig. 7(a), the A region is a wavy a-phase crystal, and the B region is a straight-line a-phase crystal. As can be seen from Fig. 7b, the crystal orientation of the straight-line a-phase is mainly that the c-axis is parallel to TD, and the crystal orientation of the wavy a-phase is mainly concentrated on the c-axis parallel to ND or parallel to RD. The reason for this difference in tissue is mainly that the c-axis of the a-phase crystal characterized by T-shaped texture is parallel or approximately parallel to TD, and such crystals are favorable for the cylindrical slip system and the base surface during rolling. The activation of the slip system causes the a-phase cluster to rotate and extend in the RD direction to promote PM%, resulting in the formation of a-phase strip-like structure along the rolling direction. The wavy a-phase structure in the sheet is generally hard-oriented (<0001>IIND or <0001>IRD), and the crystals of this orientation are difficult to perform in the process of rolling deformation, cylinder slip and base slip. Start-up, and the critical shear stress required for taper slip start is greater. When the degree of deformation is small, the hard-oriented a-phase will hinder the deformation of the a-phase during the deformation process. As the deformation increases, Partially hard-oriented a-phase clusters will shift to a more favorable orientation, in which case a shear band will be formed at these hard-oriented a-phase clusters, which will cause partial a-phase cluster rotation A wavy a-phase structure is formed [220].
20191006144059 58014 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate
Fig.6 Microstructures of straight a colonies (a) and wavy a colonies (b) of TA32 thick plate
20191006144310 94078 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate
Fig.7 Relationship between morphology of a grains and their respective crystal orientation (a) inverse pole figure (IPF) map (b) pole figure (PF) of the corresponding dashed areas
3.2 Influence of microstructure and texture on tensile properties
The tensile strength and plasticity of the TA32 titanium alloy sheet in the ND direction are lower than those in the RD and TD directions, which are mainly related to the microstructure orientation. After the sheet is rolled, the slab a phase will exhibit directionality, that is, the slab a phase or the a sheet bundle will be distributed along the RD and TD directions. When stretched in the RD and TD directions, the stretching axis is at a small angle to the slat a, and the slats a parallel to each other play a reinforcing role, so that the strength in the two directions is enhanced; When stretched in the ND direction, the stretching axis is bundled with the slat a phase or a sheet at a large angle, so that the relationship between the slat a phases is greatly weakened during stretching, and the reinforcing effect of the a sheet is substantially disappeared [ 24], the schematic is shown in the figure. Figure 4 shows the macroscopic morphology of the surface of the tensile specimen and Figure 5 shows the deformation mechanism. Therefore, the tensile strength and plasticity in the ND direction are relatively low.

20191006151358 23199 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate

Fig.8 Schematics of fracturing of a colony along tensile direction (a) and vertical to tensile direction (b)
In addition to the large influence of microstructure on the mechanical properties of the alloy, hcp a phase texture is also a factor that cannot be ignored, especially the near-type alloy with little bccp phase halo. When the alloy has a strong texture, there are differences in the difficulty of starting the slip system in different directions, and it will show strong anisotropy.
It can be seen from Table 1 that the tensile strength of the TA32 alloy sheet at the same thickness in the TD and RD directions is small, which may be related to the difference in the horizontal and vertical microstructures and the low texture strength. From the surface layer to the center of the thickness section of the sheet, the tensile strength gradually decreases, which may be related to the orientation of the a-phase (0002) crystal plane. Different orientation grains have different Schmidt factors (Schmidt factor m=cosOcos!f, where (J) is the angle between the normal direction of the slip plane and the loading direction, and w is the angle between the slip direction and the loading direction). The size will affect the slip-starting ability during the tensile deformation process, which in turn affects the tensile deformation resistance of the sheet. Won et al. [25,26] used the distribution of Schmidt factors to analyze the effect of hardening and softening on the loading of pure Ti sheets. The relationship between the size of the Schmidt factor and the loading direction is shown in Figure 9, when the loading direction and the c-axis direction When consistent, the m values of the cylinder slip system and the base slip system are difficult to activate, the tensile strength is high, and the loading direction gradually deviates.
The Schmidt factor of the c-axis, cylinder slip system and base slip system is gradually increased. At this time, the activation of the slip system is easy to realize and the tensile strength is lowered. From the pole figure distribution at different positions on the thickness section of the sheet (Fig. 3), it can be seen that for the tensile specimen in the TD direction, from the surface layer to the center of the sheet, although the texture strength hardly changes, the c-axis is the (0002) crystal plane. A certain deflection occurs, and the c-axis gradually deviates from the TD direction, that is, the c-axis gradually deviates from the tensile stress loading direction (TD direction), resulting in a gradual increase in the Schmidt factor, which causes the tensile strength of the sheet in the TD direction to gradually decrease from the surface layer to the center of the sheet. For the tensile specimen in the RD direction, the angle between the c-axis and the tensile stress loading direction gradually decreases from 90° from the surface layer to the center of the sheet. As can be seen from Fig. 9, the Schmidt factor of the base slip system gradually increases. Therefore, the tensile strength of the strength is gradually lowered.
20191006151432 24286 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick PlateFig.9 SF distribution of two slip systems (prismatic and basal (a> slips) as a function of 0 (0-angle between c-axis and loading axis)
In order to further discuss the influence of the a-phase crystal orientation and the Schmidt factor on the tensile strength at different thickness sections of the sheet, EBSD data acquisition and analysis were performed on the surface texture of the sheet and the N-face micro-texture at the thickness of 1/2. The results are shown in Fig. 10. Shown. As can be seen from the (0002) pole figure (Fig. 10a and d), there are two concentrated orientation textures (textures A and B) in the a phase of the sheet, where the c axis is mainly parallel to the TD direction (texture A). The maximum density is 8.42; at the 1/2 thickness of the sheet, there are three concentrated orientation textures (textures C\D and E) in the a phase, and the two centrally oriented c axes deviate from the TD direction by about 30. °~45°  (texture D and E), another concentrated orientation of the a-phase c-axis is almost parallel to the RD direction (texture C). It can be seen that from the surface layer of the thickness section of the sheet to the center position, the c-axis is a certain deflection of the (0002) crystal plane, which is consistent with the XRD test results. For high temperature alloys, the cylinder slip and base slip of phase a are the main mechanisms of alloy deformation. Studies [27, 28] show that the difficulty of deformation of the alloy can be roughly through the cylinder and base. The size of the shifted Schmidt factor is used to balance the halo. The larger the Schmidt factor, the lower the tensile strength. Using the HKL-Channel 5 software, the Schmidt factor of the cylinder slip system {101-0}<112-0> and the base slip system {0001}<112-0> stretched in the TD direction is calculated. 10b, c, e, and f are shown. It can be seen from the figure that the ratio of the Schmidt factor in the range of 0.4 to 0.5 varies little from the surface layer to the center of the thickness section of the sheet, the ratio increases from 0.206 to 0.227, and the base slip is Schmidt factor 0.4~0.5. The proportion increased from 0.524 to 0.62, an increase of nearly 20%, and the Schmidt factor stretching in the RD direction also showed a similar trend. The trend is consistent with the presumed trend of the XRD results. It can be seen that from the surface layer to the center position of the sheet thickness section, the Schmidt factor increases along the tensile direction due to the gradual deviation of the a-phase c-axis from the TD direction, resulting in stretching. One of the main reasons for the gradual decrease in strength. Research [6] shows that the intragranular structure exists in the deformed structure and is the primary obstacle to overcome the slip initiation and dislocation motion. In order to study the intra-substructure, EBSD was used to analyze the local misorientation (LM) of the surface layer and 1/2 thickness of the sheet. The essence is the difference in the orientation of the crystal. The results are shown in Fig. 11. The LM of the surface layer of the sheet is close to a normal distribution at 1° ~5° , and the proportion of the interval of LM less than 1°  is significantly increased at the thickness of the sheet 1/2. It is generally considered that there is no substructure when the intragranular orientation difference is less than 1 ,, and a substructure exists between 1°  and 10° . From the surface layer to the center of the thickness section of the sheet, the proportion of intragranular structure decreased from 0.79 to 0.43. It can be seen that the gradual decrease in the proportion of intra-substructure is another important factor leading to the gradual decrease of tensile strength.
20191006151624 52477 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate
Fig.10 PF maps (a, d) and Schmidt factor maps (b, c, e, f) at the surface (a~c) and 1/2 thickness (d~f)
20191006151752 29241 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate
Fig.11 local misorientation results of TA32 titanium alloy thick plate at the surface (a) and 1/2 thickness (b)
Study [29] shows that the heat treatment temperature of a+p two-phase region will have a significant impact on the microstructure and texture of the near-type high-temperature alloy. In order to further study the effect of microstructure and texture on tensile properties, the TA32 alloy plate was subjected to 920 ° C, 30 min, AC + 600 ° C, 5 h, AC and 950 ° C, 30 min, AC. +600 ° C, 5 h, AC solution aging heat treatment, and microstructure, texture observation and TD direction room temperature tensile properties test.
The microstructure after heat treatment is shown in Figure 12. It can be seen that as the heat treatment temperature increases, the p-transformed tissue halo gradually increases, and after 950 ° C heat treatment, more slats a-phase spheroidization can be observed. The XRD was used to test the texture of the thick plates from the two heat treatment systems from the surface of the sheet to the center. The results of the (0002) pole figure are shown in Fig. 10. After heat treatment at 920 ° C, 30 min, AC + 600 ° C, 5 h, AC, T-texture disappeared, after 950 ° C, 30 min, AC + 600 ° C, 5 h, AC heat treatment, T-type The texture is strengthened, and the maximum density is found at 1/4 of the thickness of the sheet. The room temperature tensile properties of the two heat treatment systems are shown in Table 2, 920 ° C, 30 min, AC + 600 ° C, After 5 h, after AC heat treatment, the tensile strength remained basically unchanged from the surface layer to the center thickness of the sheet. This was mainly because the microstructure was more uniform after heat treatment, and the T-texture disappeared from the surface layer to the center thickness. 1 Data comparison shows that when there is no difference in the microstructure of the TA32 alloy plate from the surface layer to the center thickness, the texture is the main factor affecting the tensile properties. After heat treatment at 950 ° C, 30 min, AC + 600 ° C, 5 h, AC, the tensile strength at 1/4 thickness of the sheet is slightly higher than the tensile strength at the surface of the sheet and 1/2 thickness. Figure 13
The results of the (0002) pole figure are consistent. On the one hand, although the c-axis is substantially parallel to the TD direction compared with the surface layer of the sheet, the pole density at the thickness of the sheet is 1/4, which is higher than the pole density of the sheet surface. On the other hand, at the thickness of 1/2, the c-axis can be observed to deviate from the TD direction, so the tensile strength at the 1/2 thickness of the sheet is the lowest. Comparing the rolled state of Table 1 and the tensile strength of the surface layer and the 1/4 thickness of the heat treated state at 950 ° C, 30 min, AC + 600 ° C, 5 h, AC in Table 2, although in two states , the surface of the sheet has the same texture type and is extremely dense
Degree, but due to the heat treatment at 950 ° C, the plate tissue changed significantly. The p-transformed tissue contained halo increased, and the secondary a slats were observed.
In the case of coarseness, at the same time, part of the primary slats spheroidized, resulting in a decrease in tensile strength; at a thickness of 1/4 of the sheet, although the T-texture passes through 950 ° C
The heat treatment was strengthened, but the corresponding tensile strength did not increase, which was mainly related to the change of microstructure.
In summary, under the condition that there is no obvious difference in microstructure, the texture is the main factor affecting the tensile strength of TA32 alloy thick plate at different positions; after double annealing heat treatment, the difference of microstructure is the influence of thick plate The main factor of tensile strength.
20191006152110 37396 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate
Fig.12 Microstructures of TD-ND plane after the heat treatment of 920 ° C (a) and 950 C(b)
20191006152254 26524 - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate
Fig.13 The (0002) PF distributions of TA32 thick plate after heat treatment

Table 2 Room temperature tensile properties of TA32 thick plate after heat treatment

Heat Treatment             Position

Rp0.2 / MPa

Rm / MPa

A / %

Z / %

Surface

934

1002

12.0

28.8

920 C, 30 min, AC           1/4

927

996

13.0

23.0

+600 C,5 h, AC               1/2

931

998

12.0

20.6

Surface

908

976

17.0

19.1

950 C, 30 min, AC           1/4

913

985

14.0

24.5

+600 C,5 h, AC                1/2

907

971

12.6

21.7

 Note: Each data is the average of two data, AC—air cooling

4 Conclusion

  • (1) There is no significant difference in the microstructure between the R-plane and the T-face in the as-rolled thick plate. The obvious rolling flow line can be observed, and the N-face a-phase slat microstructure is integrated with the R-face. And the a-phase slat orientation of the T-plane.
  • (2) There is a typical T-shaped texture in the as-rolled thick plate. From the surface of the sheet to the center, the c-axis of the a-phase gradually deviates from the TD direction, resulting in a gradual increase in the Schmidt factor of the cylinder slip system and the base slip system. Large, is one of the main reasons leading to a gradual decrease in tensile strength; in addition, the gradual decrease in the proportion of intragranular structures is another important factor leading to a gradual decrease in tensile strength.
  • (3) Under the condition that there is no obvious difference in microstructure, the texture is the main factor affecting the tensile strength of TA32 alloy thick plate at different positions; after double annealing heat treatment, the difference of microstructure is the tensile strength of thick plate. The main factor.

Source: China Titanium Alloy Plates Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry (www.steeljrv.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

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microstructure texture and mechanical properties of ta32 titanium alloy thick plate - Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate
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Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of TA32 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate
Description
TA32 alloy is a new near a titanium alloy designed by optimizing the alloy elements ratio based on a series of elements Ti-Al-Sn-Zr-Mo-Si-Nb-Ta which has less p-stabilizing elements. This alloy has an excellent match of heat resistance and heat stability at 550 C, and good short-term mechanical properties at 600~650 C.
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