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What is a shell and tube heat exchanger?

What is a shell and tube heat exchanger? Shell-and-tube heat exchanger is also called tube-and-tube heat exchanger. A wall-to-wall heat exchanger with the wall of the tube bundle enclosed in the shell as the heat transfer surface. The heat exchanger is simple in structure and reliable in operation. It can be manufactured with various structural materials (mainly metal materials) and can be used under high temperature and pressure. It is the most widely used type at present. Figure 1. Shell and tube exchanger. Structure and Type of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Shell and Tube Exchanger Factors to be considered in the design of […]

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Nickel Alloy: Hastelloy C-276 (UNS N10276)

UNS N10276 or DIN 2.4819, Hastelloy C-276 (also known as Alloy C-276), is a nickel-molybdenum-chromium-iron-tungsten alloy which is among the most corrosion-resistant alloys currently available. The high molybdenum content imparts resistance to localized corrosion such as pitting. The low carbon minimizes carbide precipitation during welding to maintain resistance to intergranular attack in heat affected zones of welding joints. Chemical Analysis Physical Properties Mechanical Properties Standards Corrosion Resistance Applications Chemical Composition of Hastelloy C-276 Hastelloy C-276 weld neck flanges, 14″ 600# SCH80 RTJ. Nominal Chemical Composition of Hastelloy C-276, % Nickel Balance Cobalt ≤2.5 Chromium 16 Molybdenum 16 Iron 5 Tungsten […]

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Cause Analysis of WP304WX Pipeline Leakage

Leakage occurred in stainless steel pipeline of a chemical enterprise after 5 years of service. The leakage location is the heat affected zone (the connection mode of stub end, tee and straight pipe is shown in Figure 1) near flanging of stub end and tee welding seam. The leakage location is about 50 mm to stub end side. The working medium in the leaking pipeline is 100% methanol at room temperature, the working pressure of the pipeline is 0.24MPa, the material of the tee is A403-WP304S, the material of the straight pipe is A312-TP304, and the material of the stub […]

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Notices for Connection Modes of Pipeline Engineering

Pipeline connection is inevitable in every pipeline project, and it is also one of the most important factors that directly determine the quality of pipeline project. We summarize the major and minor matters needing attention in various pipeline connection modes, hoping to provide you with reference and help you improve the quality of pipeline engineering. Screw connection Flange connection Welding Socket connection Bonding Sleeve connection Hot melt connection Groove connection Screw connection (1) If it is necessary to break the pipe on the spot according to the surveying and mapping sketch, attention should be paid to cleaning the iron film […]

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What is titanium alloy?

What is titanium alloy? Titanium alloy is alloy based on titanium with other elements added. Titanium has two kinds of homogeneous heterogeneous crystals: alpha titanium with dense hexagonal structure below 882℃ and beta titanium with body-centered cubic structure above 882℃. Alloy elements can be classified into three categories according to their effects on phase transformation temperature: (1) The elements that stabilize the alpha phase and increase the phase transition temperature are alpha stable elements, such as aluminium, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. Among them, aluminium is the main alloy element of titanium alloy. It has obvious effect on improving the strength […]

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What is nickel?

What is nickel? Ni is the chemical symbol of nickel in the VIIIB group of the periodic table and its atomic number is 28. Its density is 8.908 g/cm³. The melting and boiling points of nickel are 1728K (1455 °C, 2651 °F) and 3186 K, (2913 °C, 5275 °F) respectively. Pure nickel is a silvery grey metal. When it is exposed to air, a layer of the basic oxide surface is formed to protect nickel from further oxidation. Therefore, the nickel we see is usually grey white. Nickel is hard, malleable, ductile and can be highly polished. It is the […]

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What is titanium?

What is titanium? Titanium is known as a transition metal on the periodic table of elements and is denoted by the symbol Ti. It is a lightweight, silver-gray material with an atomic number of 22 and an atomic weight of 47.90. It has a density of 4.54g/cm3 , which is somewhere between the densities of aluminum and stainless steel. It has a melting point of roughly 1,667°C and a boiling point of 3,287°C. Rutile and ilmenite, the two primary minerals which contain titanium, make up 24% of the earth’s crust, thus making titanium the ninth most abundant element on the […]

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Analysis of Forging Technology for Stainless Steel

Stainless steel is widely used in national defense industry, chemical industry, petroleum industry and power sector, and many products require not only corrosion resistance, but also high strength, so most stainless steel must be used after forging. Compared with carbon steel, stainless steel has different characteristics: low thermal conductivity, narrow forging temperature range, strong superheat sensitivity, high resistance at high temperature and low plasticity, which bring many difficulties to forging production, and different types of stainless steel forging process are also different. You can click the following links, which bring you to the related content. Forging of Austenitic Stainless Steel […]

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What is Forging?

What is Forging? Ⅰ. Definition and classification of forging 1. Definition of forging Forging is a kind of processing method that uses forging machinery to exert pressure on metal blanks to produce plastic deformation to obtain forgings with certain mechanical properties, shape and size. Forging (forging and stamping) is one of the two major components. Forging can eliminate the defects such as as-cast looseness and optimize the micro-structure of metals in the smelting process. At the same time, the mechanical properties of forgings are generally better than those of castings of the same material because of the preservation of complete metal […]

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Connection Structure of Heat Exchanger Tube and Tube Plate in the Design of Sh……

Heat exchangers are widely used in chemical industry, petroleum, medicine, atomic energy and nuclear industry, and their types and structures are also numerous. Shell and tube heat exchangers are the most commonly used. In the design and manufacture of shell and tube heat exchangers, the connection between heat exchanger tubes and tube sheets directly affects the normal operation of the process, and even forces the whole production line to stop production. Therefore, the technical research on the joint type of heat exchanger tube and tube sheet has always been the focus of attention of domestic and foreign technicians. 1 Common […]

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