What are Steel Pipes?
Steel pipe is long, hollow tube that are used in the piping system to transport liquid, gas and sometimes solids.
Divided into carbon structural steel pipe, low alloy structural steel pipe, alloy steel pipe and composite steel pipe according to the material; divided into conveying pipeline, engineering structure, thermal equipment, petrochemical industry, machinery manufacturing, geology according to the purpose For drilling, steel pipes for high-pressure equipment, etc.; according to the production process, it is divided into seamless steel pipe and welded steel pipe. The seamless steel pipe is divided into hot rolling and cold rolling (pulling). The welded steel pipe is divided into straight seam welded steel pipe and spiral seam welding.
Steel pipes are not only used to transport fluids and powdered solids, exchange heat, manufacture mechanical parts and containers, but are also an economical steel. The use of steel pipes to manufacture building structure grids, pillars and mechanical supports can reduce weight, save 20-40% of metal, and achieve mechanized construction. The use of steel pipes to manufacture highway bridges not only saves steel and simplifies construction, but also greatly reduces the area of the protective coating and saves investment and maintenance costs.
|1 Material||4 Types|
|2 Classification||5 Sizes and dimensions|
|3 Standards||6 Uses|
- Carbon Steel
- Alloy Steel
- Stainless Steel
- Copper and Copper Alloys
- Nickel and Nickel Alloys
- Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
- Titanium and Titanium Alloys
- Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys
Classified by Production Methods
According to the production method, steel pipes can be divided into two categories: seamless steel pipes and seamed steel pipes, and seamed steel pipes are referred to as straight seam steel pipes.
- Seamless steel pipes can be divided into: hot-rolled seamless pipes, cold-drawn pipes, precision steel pipes, hot-expanded pipes, cold-spinning pipes and extruded pipes. The seamless steel pipe is made of high-quality carbon steel or alloy steel and has hot rolling and cold rolling (extraction).
- Welded steel pipes are divided into furnace welded pipes, electric welding (resistance welded) pipes and automatic arc welded pipes due to different welding processes. Due to the different welding forms, they are divided into straight welded pipes and spiral welded pipes, because their end shapes are divided. It is a round welded pipe and a special-shaped (square, flat, etc.) welded pipe.
The welded steel pipe is formed by welding a steel plate rolled into a tubular shape by a seam or a spiral seam. In terms of the manufacturing method, it is further divided into a welded steel pipe for low-pressure fluid transportation, a spiral-welded electric steel pipe, a direct-wound welded steel pipe, an electric welded pipe, and the like. Seamless steel pipes can be used in liquid pressure pipes and gas pipes in various industries. Welded pipes can be used for water pipes, gas pipes, heating pipes, electrical pipes, etc.
Classified by material
Steel pipes can be divided into: carbon pipes and alloy pipes, stainless steel pipes, and the like.
Carbon pipes can be divided into ordinary carbon steel pipes and high-quality carbon structural pipes.
Alloy tubes can be further divided into: low alloy tubes, alloy structure tubes, high alloy tubes, high strength tubes. Bearing tubes, heat-resistant and acid-resistant stainless steel tubes, precision alloys (such as Kovar) tubes, and high-temperature alloy tubes.
Classified by connection
The steel pipe can be divided into the light pipe (the pipe end is not threaded) and the wire pipe (the pipe end is threaded) according to the pipe end connection mode.
The wire tube is further divided into: ordinary car wire tube and tube end thickened wire tube.
Thickened wire tube can also be divided into: outer thickening (with external thread), inner thickening (with internal thread) and inner and outer thickening (with internal and external thread) and other ground wire tubes.
If the wire tube is threaded, it can be divided into: ordinary cylindrical or conical thread and special thread.
In addition, according to the needs of users, the wire tube is generally equipped with a pipe joint delivery.
Classified by plating characteristics
The steel pipe can be divided into black tube (not plated) and plated coated tube according to the surface coating characteristics.
The coated tubes are galvanized, aluminized, chrome-plated, aluminized, and other alloyed steel tubes.
The coated tube has an outer coated tube, an inner coated tube, and an inner and outer coated tube. Commonly used coatings are plastic, epoxy, coal tar epoxy and various glass type anti-corrosive coatings. Galvanized pipes are further divided into KBG pipes, JDG pipes, threaded pipes, etc.
Classified by application
Steel pipes use can be divided into:
- Pipes for industry. Such as: water, gas pipe, steam pipe seamless pipe, oil pipeline, oil and gas trunk line pipe. Agricultural irrigation faucets with pipes and sprinkler pipes.
- Tubes for thermal equipment. Such as general boiler boiling water pipe, superheated steam pipe, locomotive boiler superheat pipe, large pipe, small pipe, arch brick pipe and high temperature and high pressure boiler pipe.
- Pipes for the mechanical industry. Such as aviation structural tubes (round tubes, elliptical tubes, flat elliptical tubes), automotive semi-axle tubes, axle tubes, automobile tractor structural tubes, oil cooler tubes for tractors, square and rectangular tubes for agricultural machinery, tubes for transformers, and bearings Tube and so on.
- Oil geological drilling pipe. Such as: oil drilling pipe, oil drill pipe (square drill pipe and hexagonal drill pipe), drill pipe, petroleum oil pipe, oil casing and various pipe joints, geological drilling pipe (core pipe, casing, active drill pipe, drilled , by hoop and pin joints, etc.).
- Tubes for the chemical industry. Such as: petroleum cracking tubes, chemical equipment heat exchangers and pipelines, stainless acid-resistant tubes, high-pressure tubes for fertilizers, and pipes for transporting chemical media.
- Other departments use the tube. Such as: container tube (high pressure gas cylinder tube and general container tube), instrumentation instrument tube, watch case tube, injection needle and its medical device tube.
|Straight seam steel pipe|
|Seamless steel pipe|
|Precision steel pipe|
Straight seam steel pipe is a steel pipe whose weld is parallel to the longitudinal direction of the steel pipe. Usually divided into metric electric welded steel pipe, welded thin-walled pipe, transformer cooling oil pipe and so on. Straight seam welded pipe has simple production process, high production efficiency, low cost and rapid development. The strength of the spiral welded pipe is generally higher than that of the straight welded pipe. It is possible to produce a welded pipe with a large diameter by using a narrow blank, and it is also possible to produce a welded pipe having a different pipe diameter by using a blank of the same width. However, compared with the straight pipe of the same length, the weld length is increased by 30 to 100%, and the production speed is low.
General welded pipe: Generally welded pipe is used to transport low pressure fluid. Made of Q195, Q215A, Q235A steel, Q235B carbon. Straight seam steel pipes are subjected to experiments such as water pressure, bending and flattening, and have certain requirements on the surface quality. Usually, the delivery length is 4-10 m, and the fixed length (or double rule) is often required. The specification of the welded pipe is expressed by the nominal diameter (mm or inch). The nominal diameter is different from the actual one. The welded pipe has two kinds of ordinary steel pipe and thick steel pipe according to the specified wall thickness. The steel pipe is divided into two types according to the pipe end and the thread.
The welding process of submerged arc welded straight seam steel pipe is submerged arc welding technology, which uses filler welding and particle protection flux submerged arc. The caliber of the production can reach 1500mm. LSAW is the English abbreviation for submerged arc welded straight seam steel pipe. The production process of submerged arc welding straight seam steel pipe has JCOE molding technology and roll-formed submerged arc welding technology. When the diameter is large, it may be rolled with two steel plates, which will form a double weld. Standard GB/T3091-2008 low-pressure fluid steel pipe production standard, GB/T9711.1-2 -1997 oil and gas steel pipe production and use standards can be implemented, and can also implement the US API 5L pipeline steel pipe implementation standard. Production material: Q195A-Q345E; 245R; Q345QA-D; L245-L485; X42-X70. The pressure parameters are mainly 2ST/T, S is the yield strength, and T is the wall thickness. Submerged arc welding has been developed to have double-wire submerged arc welding and multi-wire submerged arc welding, and the efficiency is further improved.
Production process of straight seam steel pipe
According to the production process, straight seam steel pipes can be divided into high-frequency straight seam steel pipes and submerged arc welded straight seam steel pipes. Submerged arc welded straight seam steel pipes are further divided into UOE, RBE, JCOE steel pipes according to their different molding methods. The following describes the most common molding processes for high-frequency straight seam steel tubes and submerged arc welded straight seam steel tubes.
Submerged arc welding process
- Panel inspection: After the steel plate used to manufacture the large-diameter submerged arc welded straight seam steel pipe enters the production line, the whole board ultrasonic inspection is first carried out;
- Milling edge: double-sided milling the two edges of the steel plate by the edge milling machine to achieve the required plate width, edge parallelism and groove shape;
- Pre-bend: use the pre-bending machine to pre-bend the edge of the board so that the edge of the board has the required curvature;
- Molding: On the JCO molding machine, half of the pre-bent steel plate is first stepped and pressed into a “J” shape, and the other half of the steel plate is also bent and pressed into a “C” shape, and finally an opening is formed. “O” shape
- Pre-welding: joints of straight seam welded steel pipes after forming and continuous welding by gas shielded welding (MAG);
- Internal welding: welding by longitudinal multi-wire submerged arc welding (up to four wires) on the inside of a straight seam steel pipe;
- External welding: welding by longitudinal multi-wire submerged arc welding on the outside of straight seam submerged arc welded steel pipe;
- Ultrasonic inspection I: 100% inspection of the inner and outer welds of straight seam welded steel pipes and the base metal on both sides of the weld;
- X-ray inspection I: 100% X-ray industrial TV inspection of internal and external welds, using image processing system to ensure the sensitivity of flaw detection;
- Expanding diameter: Expanding the full length of the submerged arc welded straight seam steel pipe to improve the dimensional accuracy of the steel pipe and improve the distribution of stress in the steel pipe;
- Hydraulic test: The steel pipe after diameter expansion is tested on the hydraulic testing machine to ensure that the steel pipe meets the test pressure required by the standard. The machine has automatic recording and storage functions;
- Chamfering: The steel pipe after passing the inspection shall be processed at the end of the pipe to achieve the required pipe end groove size;
- Ultrasonic inspection II: Ultrasonic inspection is carried out again and again to check for defects that may occur after straightening and water pressure of straight seam welded steel pipes;
- X-ray inspection II: X-ray industrial TV inspection and tube end weld filming of the steel pipe after the expansion and hydrostatic test;
- Tube End Magnetic Particle Inspection: Perform this inspection to find tube end defects;
- Anti-corrosion and coating: The qualified steel pipe is preserved and coated according to user requirements.
High frequency welding process
The straight seam welded steel pipe is obtained by winding a long strip of a certain specification into a round tube by a high frequency welding unit and welding the straight seam into a steel pipe. The shape of the steel tube may be circular or square or shaped, depending on the sizing rolling after welding. The materials of welded steel pipe are mainly low carbon steel and low alloy steel or other steel with σs≤300N/mm2 and σs≤500N/mm2. The production process of high-frequency welding of straight seam steel pipe is as follows:
High frequency welding
High-frequency welding is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction and the skin effect, proximity effect and eddy current effect of alternating charge in the conductor, so that the steel at the edge of the weld is locally heated to a molten state, and the extrusion of the roller causes the butt weld to achieve crystal indirect. In order to achieve the purpose of weld welding. High-frequency welding is a kind of induction welding (or pressure contact welding), which does not require weld filler, no welding splash, narrow welding heat affected zone, beautiful welding and good welding performance, so it is affected in the production of steel pipe. A wide range of applications.
The high-frequency welding of the steel pipe is to use the skin effect and the proximity effect of the alternating current. After the steel (strip) is rolled and formed, a circular blank with a broken cross section is formed, and a tube is rotated near the center of the induction coil. Or a set of impeders (magnetic bars), the impedance forming an electromagnetic induction loop at the opening of the blank, and under the effect of the skin effect and the proximity effect, a strong and concentrated thermal effect is generated at the edge of the opening of the blank, so that the edge of the weld After rapidly heating to the temperature required for welding, the metal in the molten state is intergranularly bonded after being pressed by the pressure roller, and after cooling, a firm butt weld is formed.
A seamless steel pipe made of a single piece of metal and having no seams on its surface is called a seamless steel pipe. According to the production method, the seamless pipe is divided into a hot rolled pipe, a cold rolled pipe, a cold drawn pipe, an extruded pipe, a top pipe, and the like. According to the shape of the section, the seamless steel tube is divided into two types: a circular shape and a special shape. The shaped tube has a plurality of complicated shapes such as a square shape, an elliptical shape, a triangular shape, a hexagonal shape, a melon shape, a star shape, and a winged tube. The maximum diameter is 650mm and the minimum diameter is 0.3mm. Depending on the application, there are thick-walled tubes and thin-walled tubes. Seamless steel pipes are mainly used as petroleum geological drilling pipes, cracking pipes for petrochemicals, boiler tubes, bearing tubes, and high-precision structural steel tubes for automobiles, tractors, and aviation.
Production process of seamless steel pipe
1 Main production process of hot-rolled seamless steel pipe (△ main inspection process):
Tube blank preparation and inspection △→Tube heating→Perforation→Rolling tube→Steel tube reheating→Fixed (reduced) diameter→heat treatment △→finished tube straightening→finishing→inspection △(non-destructive, physicochemical, Taiwan inspection)→Warehousing
2 cold rolling (drawing) seamless steel pipe main production process:
Blank preparation → pickling lubrication → cold rolling (pull) → heat treatment → straightening → finishing → inspection
The production process of general seamless steel pipe can be divided into cold drawing and hot rolling. The production process of cold rolled seamless steel pipe is generally more complicated than hot rolling. The pipe blank must first be rolled in three rolls. The sizing test, if the surface does not respond to the crack, the round tube is cut by a cutter and cut into a blank having a length of about one meter. Then enter the annealing process, the acidification should be acid-washed with acid liquid. When pickling, pay attention to whether there is a large amount of foaming on the surface. If there is a large amount of foaming, the quality of the steel pipe will not reach the corresponding standard. The appearance of cold-rolled seamless steel pipe is shorter than that of hot-rolled seamless steel pipe. The wall thickness of cold-rolled seamless steel pipe is generally smaller than that of hot-rolled seamless steel pipe, but the surface looks brighter than thick-walled seamless steel pipe, and the surface is not too More rough, not too many burrs in the caliber.
The delivery status of the hot-rolled seamless steel pipe is generally delivered after the heat treatment in the hot rolled state. After the quality inspection, the hot-rolled seamless steel pipe is subjected to strict manual selection by the staff. After the quality inspection, the surface is oiled, followed by multiple cold drawing experiments, and the perforation experiment is performed after the hot rolling process. If the perforation is too large, straightening correction is required. After straightening, the conveyor is sent to the flaw detector for flaw detection experiments. Finally, the label is placed, the specifications are arranged, and then placed in the warehouse.
Round tube billet → heating → perforation → three-roll cross-rolling, continuous rolling or extrusion → pipe removal → sizing (or reducing diameter) → cooling → straightening → hydraulic test (or flaw detection) → marking → storage seamless steel pipe The steel tube or the solid tube blank is made into a capillary tube by perforation, and then is formed by hot rolling, cold rolling or cold drawing. The specifications of the seamless steel pipe are expressed by the outer diameter * wall thickness in millimeters.
The outer diameter of hot-rolled seamless pipe is generally larger than 32mm, the wall thickness is 2.5-200mm, the outer diameter of cold-rolled seamless steel pipe can reach 6mm, the wall thickness can be 0.25mm, the outer diameter of thin-walled pipe can reach 5mm, the wall thickness is less than 0.25mm, cold Rolling is more accurate than hot rolling.
Generally, the seamless steel pipe is formed by hot-rolled or cold-rolled low-alloy structural steels such as 10, 20, 30, 35, 45, etc., such as 16Mn and 5MnV, or 40Cr, 30CrMnSi, 45Mn2, 40MnB, and the like. Seamless pipes made of low carbon steel such as 10 and 20 are mainly used for fluid conveying pipes. 45, 40Cr and other medium carbon steel seamless pipes are used to make mechanical parts, such as the force parts of automobiles and tractors. Generally, seamless steel pipes are required to ensure strength and flattening test. The hot rolled steel pipe is delivered in a hot rolled state or a heat treated state; the cold rolling is delivered in a heat treated state.
Hot rolling, as the name suggests, has a high temperature of the rolled piece, so the deformation resistance is small and a large amount of deformation can be achieved. Taking the rolling of the steel sheet as an example, the thickness of the continuous casting blank is generally about 230 mm, and after rough rolling and finish rolling, the final thickness is 1 to 20 mm. At the same time, due to the small width-to-thickness ratio of the steel plate, the dimensional accuracy requirement is relatively low, and the shape problem is not easy to occur, and the convexity is mainly controlled. For the organization, it is generally achieved by controlled rolling and controlled cooling, that is, controlling the rolling temperature and finishing temperature of the finishing rolling. Round billet → heating → perforation → heading → annealing → pickling → oiling (copper plating) → Multi-pass cold drawing (cold rolling) → blank tube → heat treatment → straightening → hydraulic pressure test (inspection) → marking → storage.
Precision steel pipe is a kind of high-precision steel pipe material after cold drawing or hot rolling. Because the inner and outer walls of precision steel pipes have no oxidation layer, high pressure and no leakage, high precision, high smoothness, no deformation of cold bending, flaring, flattening without cracks, etc., they are mainly used to produce pneumatic or hydraulic components, such as cylinders or The cylinder can be a seamless tube or a welded tube.
Precision steel pipe production process
The production process of precision steel pipes is the same as the ordinary seamless pipe, which is the procedure of the final pickling and cold rolling.
Production process of Precision steel pipe
Tube blank – inspection – stripping – inspection – heating – perforation – pickling passivation – grinding – lubrication drying – cold rolling – oil removal – cutting head – inspection – identification – -Product packaging
Galvanized steel pipes are classified into cold-galvanized steel pipes and hot-dip galvanized steel pipes, and cold-galvanized steel pipes have been banned. The galvanized pipe is used as a water pipe. After a few years of use, a large amount of rust is generated in the pipe. The yellow water that flows out not only pollutes the sanitary ware, but also is mixed with bacteria that grow on the inner wall of the slick. The rust causes the heavy metal content in the water to be too high, which seriously endangers the health of the human body.
Production process of galvanized steel pipe
- A, Round Steel Preparation;
- B, Heating;
- C, Hot Rolling Perforation;
- D, Cutting Head;
- E, Pickling;
- F, Grinding;
- G, Lubrication;
- H, Cold Rolling Processing;
- I, Degreasing;
- J, Solution Heat Treatment;
- K, Straightening;
- L, Cutting Tube;
- M, Pickling;
- N, Finished Product Inspection.
API(AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE)
- API 5L Line Pipe
- API 5CT CASING AND TUBING
- API 5D DRILL PIPE
- ASTM A53 / ASME SA53 / Pipe Steel Black and Hot Dipped Zinc Coated Welded and Seamless无缝和焊接钢管及镀锌钢管
- ASTM A106 / ASME SA106 / Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High Temperature Service高温用无缝碳素钢管
- ASTM A134 / ASME SA134 / Pipe Steel Electric Fusion(ARC) Welded(Sizes Nps 16 and Over)1不小于16”电弧焊钢管
- ASTM A139 / ASME SA139 / Electric Resistance Welded Steel Pipe电阻焊钢管
- ASTM A213 / ASME SA213 / Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy Steel Boiler Superheater and Heat Exchanger Tubes 铁素体和奥氏体合金锅炉过热器和热交换器无缝钢管
- ASTM A252 / ASME SA252 / Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Piles 焊接钢和无缝钢管桩
- ASTM A269 / ASME SA269 / Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service 无缝及焊接奥氏体不锈钢管一般要求
- ASTM A312 / ASME SA312 / Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe无缝和焊接奥氏体不锈钢管
- ASTM A500 / ASME SA500 / Cold Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes(Round Pipe) 圆形与异型冷成型焊接与无缝碳素钢结构管标准规范
- ASTM A511 / ASME SA511 / Seamless Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing无缝不锈钢结构钢管
- ASTM A513 / ASME SA513 / Electric Resistance Welded Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing电阻焊碳素钢及合金结构钢管
- ASTM A519 / ASME SA519 / Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing无缝碳素钢及合金结构钢管
- ASTM A789 / ASME SA789 / Seamless and Welded Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe for General Service 一般用途无缝及焊接铁素体或奥氏体不锈钢管
- ASTM A795 / ASME SA795 / Black and Hot-Dipped Zinc Coated(Galvanized) Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe for Fire Protection USE1 防火用黑色及热浸镀锌的焊接和无缝钢管
- BS534/Steel Pepes Fittings and Specials for Water and Gas and Sewage水、污水、燃气用管件及特殊管件
- BS113 /Tubes for Use in Scaffolding脚手架用钢管
- BS1387/Steel Tubes and Tubulars Suitable for Screwing to BS21 Pipe Threads钢管及适用于内螺纹型管件
- BS3601/Steel Pipes and Tubes for Pressure Purposes Carbon Steel with Specified Room Temperature Properties (BW320/ERW320/ERW360/ERW430/S360/S430/SAW430/BW320/ERW320) 常温承压钢管
- BS3605 PART1 / Seamless and Welded Austentic Stainless Steel Pipe and Tubes for Pressure Purposes(Seamless Pipes With Specified Room Temperature Preperties)
- BS3605 PART2 / Seamless and Welded Austentic Stainless Steel Pipe and Tubes for Pressure Purposes (Welded Pipes With Specified Room Temperature Properties) 承压无缝及焊接（用于常温）奥氏体不锈钢管
- BS4127 / Light Gauge Stainless Steel Tubes(Round Pipe)小截面不锈钢圆管
DIN(DETACHES INSTITUTE FOR NORMUNG)
- DIN1626 / Welded Circular Tubes of Non Alloy Steels with Special Quality Requirements(USt37.0/St37.0/St44.0/St52.0) 非合金焊接圆钢管特殊质量要求
- DIN2440 / Steel Tubes Medium Weight Suitable for Screwing (St33.2)用于螺纹连接的中等壁厚钢管
- DIN2444 / Zinc Coatings on Steel Tubes镀锌钢管
- DIN2448 / Seamless Steel Pipes and Tubes无缝钢管
- DIN2449 / Seamless Steel Pipes and Tubes无缝钢管
- DIN30670/Polyethylene coatings for steel pipes and fittings Requirements and testing
- DIN17119 / Welded Cold Formed Square And Rectangular Steel Tubes for Structural Steel work (USt 37-2/RSt 37-2/St 37-3/St 44-2/St 44-3/St 52-3/WTSt 37-2/WTSt 37-3/WTSt 52-3)
- DIN17120 / Welded Circular Steel Tubes for Structural Steelwork (USt37-2/RSt37-2/St37-2/St44-2/St44-3/St52-3)结构用焊接圆钢管
- DIN17121 / Seamless Circlar Steel Tubes for Structural Steelwork(RSt37-2/St37-3/St44-2/St44-3/St52-3)结构用无缝圆钢管
- DIN17123 / Welded Circular Fine Grain Steel Tubes for Structural Steelwork StE225/TStE255/EStE255/StE285/StE355/TStE355/EStE355/StE420/TStE420/EStE420)
- DIN17172 / Steel Pipes for Pipe Lines for the Transport of Combustible Fluids and Gases可燃液体和气体输送用管线钢管
- DIN17455 / General Purpose Welded Circular Stainless Steel Tubes(Round Pipe) ( 1.4301 / 1.4306 / 1.4311 / 1.4541 / 1.4550 /1.4401 / 1.4404 / 1.4571) 一般用途不锈钢焊接圆钢管
- DIN17455 /General Purpose Welded Circular Stainless Steel Tubes(Square.Rectangular Pipe) ( 1.4301 / 1.4306 / 1.4311 / 1.4541 / 1.4550 / 1.4401 / 1.4404 / 1.4571)一般用途不锈钢方矩型焊管
- DIN17456 / General Purose Seamless Circular Stainless Steel Tubes ( 1.4301 / 1.4306 / 1.4311 / 1.4541 / 1.4550 / 1.4401 / 1.4404 / 1.4571) 一般用途不锈钢无缝圆钢管
- DIN17457 / Welded Circular Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubes Subject to Special Requirements (1.4301/1.4306 / 1.4311 / 1.4541/1.4550/1.4401 / 1.4404 / 1.4571) 特殊要求的奥氏体不锈钢制焊接圆形钢管.交货技术条件
- DIN17458 / Seamless Circular Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubes Subject to Special Requirements 1.4301/1.4306/1.4311 /1.4541 /1.4550/1.4401/1.4404/1.4571)特殊要求的奥氏体不锈钢制无缝圆形钢管.交货技术条件
- GOST 8731 Seamless Hot-Deformed Steel Tubes. Technical requirements.热轧无缝钢管技术条件
- GOST 8732 Seamless hot-deformed steel tubes. Range. 热轧无缝钢管品种
- GOST 8733 Seamless cold and warm deformed steel tubes.Technical requirements.冷轧(拔)无缝钢管技术条件
- GOST 8734Seamless cold and warm deformed steel tubes. Range.冷轧(拔)无缝钢管品
- GOST 550 Steel seamless steel tubes for petroleum processing and petrochemical industry.石油化工行业用无缝钢管
- GOST 21729 Seamless cold-deformed and hot-deformed tubes made of structural carbon and alloyed steel.冷轧和热轧碳素结构钢管和合金结构钢管. 技术条件
- GOST 631 Internal-external upset drill tubes with couplings. 端部加厚的钻杆及其接箍.
- GOST 8467 Drill tubes for geology-exploring with nipple connections.地质钻探用内接头连接钻探钢管技术条件
- GOST 632 Casing tubes with couplings套管及其接头.
- GOST 6238Casing and coring tubes for geology-exploring drilling and nipples to them. Technical requirements 地质勘探钻井用套管和岩心管及其内接头技术条件.
- GOST 633-63 Tubing pipes with couplings. 带接箍的油管
- GOST 10704 Electrically welded steel tubes, line-weld. Range.直缝电焊钢管。品种
- GOST 10706 Electrically welded steel tubes, line-weld. Technical requirements.直缝电焊钢管。技术条件
- GOST 10707-73 Electrically welded cold-drawn and cold-rolled steel tubes.Technical requirements. 冷拔和冷轧直缝电焊钢管。技术条件
- GOST 11068 Electrically welded stainless steel tubes不锈钢电焊钢管
- GOST 3262 Steel tubes for water and gas supply with couplings.水气两用钢管. 技术条件.
- GOST 8696 Electrically welded steel tubes with spiral seams for general purposes 一般用途螺旋电焊钢管
- GOST 20295 Welded steel tubes for main oil and gas pipelines. 石油及天然气干线用焊接钢管
- GOST 21729 Seamless cold-deformed and hot-deformed tubes made of structural carbon and alloyed steel.冷轧和热轧碳素结构钢管和合金结构钢管
ISO(INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION)
- ISO 65 / Carbon Steel Tubes Suitable for Screwing in Accordance with ISO 7/1 (TS/TW)按照ISO7/1适合螺纹连接的碳素钢管
- ISO 559 / Welded or Seamless Steel Tubes for Water Sewage and Gas (TSO/TWO/TS1/TW1/TS4/TW4/TS9/TW9)用于水、污水和燃气用无缝及焊接钢管
- ISO 2604-3 / Steel Products for Pressure Purpose Parts Electric Resistance and Induction Welded Tubes (TW1/TW2/TW4/TW5/TW6/TW9/TW9H/TW10/TW13/TW14) 承压电阻及感应焊钢管
- ISO 2604-5 / Steel Products for Pressure Purposes PART5 Longitudinally Welded Austenitic stainless Steel Tubes (TW46/TW47/TW50/TW53/TW57/TW58/TW60/TW61/TW69)
- ISO 2937 / Plain End Seamless Steel Tubes for Mechanical Application (TS1/TS4/TS9/TS18/C35) 结构用平端无缝钢管
- ISO 3183 / Oil and Natural Fas Industries Steel Line Pipe (E17/E21/E24-1/E24-2) 石油和天然气工业.管道用钢管.交货技术条件.
JIS(JAPAN INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS)
- JIS G3442 Galvanized Steel Pipes for Water Service (SGPW)镀锌给水钢管
- JIS G3448 Light Gauge Stainless Steel Pipes for Ordinary Piping (SUS304TPD/316TPD)一般管道用小截面不锈钢管
- JIS G3452 Carbon Steel Pipes for Ordinary Piping (SGP)一般管道用碳素钢管
- JIS G3457 Arc Welded Carbon Steel Pipes (STPY400)电弧焊碳素钢管
- JIS G3459 Stainless Steel Pipes (SUS 304TP/304HTP/304LTP/309TP/309STP)不锈钢管
- JIS G3460 (Steel pipes for low temperature service)锅炉与热交换器用不锈钢管
- JIS G3468 Arc Welded Large Diameter Stainless Steel Pipes (SUS304TPY /304LTPY)电弧焊大直径不锈钢管
- JIS G3469 Polyethylene coated Steel Pipes (P1H /P2S/P1F)聚乙烯涂层钢管
- JIS G3444 Carbon steel tubes for general structural purposes (STK290/STK400/500/490)一般结构用碳素钢管
- JIS G3446 Stainless steel pipes for machine and structural purposes (SUS304TKA)ROUND 机械结构用不锈钢圆钢管
- JIS G3446 Stainless steel pipes for machine and structural purposes (SUS304TKA)Square.Re.机械结构用不锈钢方矩型钢管
- JIS G3452 一般管道用碳素钢管
- JIS G3457 管道用电弧焊碳素钢管
- JIS G3466 Carbon steel Square for general structural purposes (STKR 400/STKR 490)一般结构用碳素钢方管
- JIS A5525 Steel pipes piles (SPS290/SPS400/SPS500/SPS490/SPS540) 钢管桩
- KS D 3507 Carbon Steel Pipes for Ordinary Piping (SPP ZINC WATER)
- KS D 3507 Carbon Steel Pipes for Ordinary Piping (SPP BLACK)
- KS D 3537 Galvanized Steel Pipes for Water Service (SPPW)
- KS D 3562 Carbon Steel Pipes for Pressure Service (SPPS 370/SPPS 410)
- KS D 3564 Carbon Steel Pipes for High Pressure Service (SPPH 370/SPPH 410/SPPH 480)
- KS D 3569 Steel Pipes for Low Temperature Service (SPLT 380/SPLT 450/SPLT 690)
- KS D 3570 Carbon Steel Pipes for High Temperature Service (SPHT370/SPHT410/SPHT480)
- KS D 3573 Alloy Steel Pipes (SPA 12/SPA 20/SPA 22/SPA 23/SPA 24/SPA 25/SPA 26)
- KS D 3576 Stainless Steel Pipes (STS304TP/STS304HTP/STS304LTP/STS309TP/STS309STP)
- KS D 3583 Arc Welded Carbon Steel Pipes (SPW 400)
- KS D 3585 Stainless Steel sanitary Pipes (STS 304TBS/STS 304LTBS/STS 316TBS)
- KS D 3588 Arc Welded Large Diameter Stainless Steel Pipes (STS 304 TPY/STS 304 LTPY)
- KS D 3589 Polyethylene coated Steel Pipes (P1H/P2S/P1F)
- KS D 3595 Light Gauge Stainless Steel Pipes for Ordinary Piping (STS 304 TPD/STS 316 TPD)
- KS D 3563 Carbon Steel Tubes for Boiler and Heat Exchaner (STBH 340/STBH 410/ 510)
- KS D 3571 Steel Heat Exchanger Tubes for Low Temperature Service (STLT380/STLT450)
- KS D 3572 Alloy Steel for Boiler and Heat Exchanger Tubes (STHA 12/STHA 13/STHA 20)
- KS D 3577 Stainless Steel for Boiler and Heat Exchanger Tubes (STS 304TB/STS 304HTB)
- KS D 3587 Steel Tubes for Fired Heater (STF410/STFA12/STFA22/STFA23/STFA24/STFA25)
- KS D 3517 Carbon steel tubes for machine structural purposes (STKM 11A/STKM 12A)
- KS D 3536 Stainless steel pipes for machine and structural purposes (STS430TKA/430TKC
- KS D 3536 Stainless steel pipes for machine and structural purposes (STS304TKA/430TKC)
- KS D 3566 Carbon steel tubes for general structural purposes (SPS 290/SPS 400/SPS 500)
- KS D 3568 Carbon steel Square for general structural purposes (SPSR 400/SPSR 490)
- KS D 3574 Alloy steel tubes for machine purposes (SCr 420 TK/SCM 415 TK/SCM 418 TK)
- KS D 3590 Corrugated steel pipes and sections (SCP 1 R/SCP 1 RS/SCP 2 R/SCP 3 RS)
- KS D 3598 Electric Resistance Welded Carbon Steel Tubes for Automobile Structural Purposes (STAM 290GA/STAM 290GB/STAM 340G/STAM 390G/440G/470G/500G)
- KS D 3618 Carbon Steel Tubes Cylinder Barrels (STC 370/STC 440/STC 510 A/STC 510 B)
- KS D 3780 High Tensile Strength Steel Tubes for Tower Structural Purposes (STKT 540)
- KS F 4602 Steel pipes piles (SPS30/SPS41/SPS51/SPS50/SPS55)
- KS F 4605 Steel pipe sheet piles (SKY 400/SKY 490 )
- KS D 3575 Seamless Steel Tubes for High Pressure Gas Cylinder (STHG11/STHG12/STHG21)
- KS D 3757 Seamless nickel-chromium-iron alloy heat exchanger tubes (NCF 600 TB)
- KS D 3758 Seamless nickel-chromium-iron alloy pipes (NCF600TP/NCF625TP/NCF690TP)
- KS C 8401 Rigid steel conduits (G16/G22/G28/G36/G42/G54/G70/G82/G92/G104)
- KS E 3114 Seamless Steel Tubes for Drilling (STM-C 540/STM-C 640/STM-R 590/R 690)
- NF A49-111 / Steel Tubes Plain end Seamless Tubes of Commercial Quality for General Purposes at Medium Pressure (TU37a)
- NF A49-112 / Steel Tubes Plain end Seamless Hot Rolled Tubes with Special Delivery Conditions (TUE220A/TUE235A)
- NF A49-115 / Steel Tubes Seamless Plain end Tubes for Pipe Lines and General Use Ferritic And Austenitic Stainless Steels (TUZ2CN18-10/TUZ6CN18-09//TUZ6CND17-11)
- NF A49-141 / Steel Tubes Seamless Plain end Tubes for Pipe Lines and General Use Ferritic and Austenitic Stainless Steels (TS37a)
- NF A49-142 / Steel Tubes Longitudinally Pressure Welded Plain Ended And Hot Finished Tubes (TES185A/TSE235A/TSE250A/TSE275A)
AWWA (AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION)
- AWWA C200-97: Steel Water Pipe-6 In. (150 mm) and Larger
- AWWA C203-02: Coal-Tar Protective Coatings & Linings for Steel Water Pipelines, Enamel & Tpae, Hot-pap. (Incl. add. C203a-99)
- AWWA C205-00: Cement-Mortar Protective Lining and Coating for Steel Water Pipe- 4 In. (100 mm)
- AWWA C206-97: Field Welding of Steel Water Pipe
- AWWA C207-01: Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Service- Sizes 4 In. Through 144 In. (100 mm Through 3,600 mm)
- AWWA C208-01: Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings
- AWWA C209-00: Cold-paplied Tpae Coatings for the Exterior of Special Sections, Connections, and Fittings for Steel Water Pipe
- AWWA C210-97: Liquid-Epoxy Coating Systems for the Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines
- AWWA C213-01: Fusion-Bonded Epoxy Coating for the Interior and Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines
SAE (SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS)
- SAE J242a Metric Thread Fuel Injection Tubing Connections
- SAE J246 Spherical and Flanged Sleeve (Compression) Tube Fittings
- SAE J349 Detection of Surface Imperfections in Ferrous Rods, Bars, tubes, and wires
- SAE J356 Welded Flash-Controlled Low-Carbon Steel Tubing Normalized for Bending, Double Flaring, and Beading
- SAE J371 Drain, Fill, and Level Plugs for Off-Road, Self-Propelled work machines
- SAE J398 Fuel Tank Filler Conditions Passenger Car, Multi-Purpose passenger vehicles, and Light Duty Trucks
- SAE J401 Selection and Use of Steels
- SAE J402 SAE Numbering System for Wrought or Rolled Steel
- SAE J403 Chemical Compositions of SAE Carbon Steels
- SAE J404 Chemical Compositions of SAE Alloy Steels
- SAE J405 Chemical Compositions of SAE Wrought Stainless Steels
- SAE J406 Methods of Determining Harden ability of Steels
- SAE J409 Product Analysis Permissible Variations from Specified chemical analysis of a Heat or Cast of Steel
- SAE J411 Carbon and Alloy Steels
- SAE J412 General Characteristics and Heat Treatments of Steels
- SAE J413 Mechanical Properties of Heat Treated Wrought Steels
- SAE J422 Microscopic Determination of Inclusions in Steels
- SAE J424 Method for Determining Breakage Allowances for Sheet Steel
- SAE J463 Wrought Copper and Copper Alloys
- SAE J476a Dry seal Pipe Threads
- SAE J512 Automotive Tube Fittings
- SAE J513 Refrigeration Tube Fittings General Specifications
- SAE J514 Hydraulic Tube Fittings : Title: Hydraulic Tube Fittings
- SAE J515 Specification For Hydraulic O-Ring Materials, Properties, and Sizes For Metric and Inch Stud Ends, Face Seal Fitting and Four-Screw Flange Tube Connections
- SAE J518 Hydraulic Flanged Tube, Pipe, and Hose Connections, Four-Bolt split flange Type : Hydraulic Flanged Tube, Pipe, and Hose Connections, Four-Bolt split flange Type
- SAE J521 Fuel Injection Tubing Connections
- SAE J524 Seamless Low-Carbon Steel Tubing Annealed for Bending and flaring
- SAE J525 Welded and Cold Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Tubing Annealed for bending and Flaring
- SAE J526 Welded Low-Carbon Steel Tubing
- SAE J527 Brazed Double Wall Low-Carbon Steel Tubing
- SAE J528 Seamless Copper Tube
- SAE J529 Fuel Injection Tubing
- SAE J530 Automotive Pipe Fittings
- SAE J531 Automotive Pipe, Filler, and Drain Plugs : Title: Automotive Pipe, Filler, and Drain Plugs
- SAE J533 Flares for Tubing
- SAE J534 Lubrication Fittings
- SAE J554 Electric Fuses (Cartridge Type)
- SAE J562 Nonmetallic Loom
- SAE J830 Fuel Injection Equipment Nomenclature
- SAE J844 Nonmetallic Air Brake System Tubing
- SAE J846 Coding Systems for Identification of Fluid Conductors and Connectors
GB (CHINA STANDARD)
Seamless Steel Pipe
- GB T17395 Seamless Steel Pipe
- GB T8162 Structure Pipe 10 20 35 45 40Mn2 45Mn2 27SiMn 20Cr 40Cr 20CrMo 35CrMo 38CrMoA1 50CrV 30CrMnSi
- GB T14975 Structure for Stainless seamless Tube mechanical structure,fluid pipeline,passing heat equipment of boiler,heat converter,congealed equipment,catalytic pipeline 0Cr18Ni9 1Cr18Ni9 00Cr19Ni10
- GB T14976 Stainless Seamless Pipe For Fluid Pipe 0Cr18Ni9 00Cr19Ni10 0Cr23Ni13 0Cr25Ni20 0Cr18Ni10Ti 0Cr18Ni11Nb 0Cr17Ni12Mo2
- GB T3090 Small Diameter Stainless Steel Pipe 1Cr18Ni9Ti
- GB T3089 Stainless-steel super-thin thickness and seamless steel pipe 00Cr18Ni10 1Cr18Ni9Ti 00Cr17Ni14Mo2 1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti 1Cr18Ni12Mo3Ti
- GB T3639 Cold Rolled Precision Seamless Pipe 10 20 35 45 16Mn
- GB3094 Cold Rolled Seamless Specials Pipe ( Oval Square Rectangular Hexagon) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 09MnV 16Mn 15Mnv
- YB T5053 Seamless Pipe For Automotive Bushing 45 45Mn2 40Cr 20CrNi3A
- GB T13793 Butt-weld Electric Resistance Welded Pipe 08F 08 10F 10 15F 15 20 Q195 Q195A Q195B Q235A Q235B
- GB 11258 Fluoride Resin Coated Double Wall Steel Pipes for Automobiles 08 08F 08A1
- GB T3091 Welded Pipe And For the Low Pressure Fluids & Galvanized（Zinc Coated）Welded Pipe And For the Low Pressure Fluids Q195 Q215 Q235A
- GB T3092 Welded Pipe And For the Low Pressure Fluids & Galvanized（Zinc Coated）Welded Pipe And For the Low Pressure Fluids Q195 Q215 Q235A
- GB T14980 Large Diameter Electric Welded For the Low Pressure Fluids For the Low Pressure Fluids Q215 Q235A Q235B
- EDM Electrode Tubes
- STAINLESS HOLLOW BAR
- DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL PIPE
- AS 1074 STEEL TUBES AND TUBULARS FOR ORDINARY SERVICE
- AS 1163 STRUCTURAL STEEL HOLLOW SECTIONS
- UL 6 RIGID METAL CONDUIT
- ANSI C80.1 RIGID METAL CONDUIT
- CSA C22.2 RIGID METAL CONDUIT
- S45C PIPE (Carbon Steel for Machine Structural Use PIPE)
- HR PIPE (Hot Rolled Pipe)
- CR PIPE (Cold Rolled Pipe)
- CGI PIPE (Cold Rolled Galvanized Iron Pipe)
- HGI PIPE (Hot Rolled Galvanized Iron Pipe)
Generally, steel pipe sizes and steel pipe dimensions is by outside diameter, wall thickness and weight per meter. there is figure to show the steel pipe sizes list.
|Out diameter||Wall Thickness||
|Out diameter||Wall Thickness||
|Out diameter||Wall Thickness||
Steel pipes are used in different applications such as :
- Water Pipes
- Steel Casing Pipes
- Sewage Pipes
- Structural Steel Pipes
- Industrial Steel Pipes
- Steel Scaffolding Pipes
- Oil & Gas Pipes
Three points for steel pipe inspection process
No matter seamless steel pipe or welded pipeline, we should have check methods for the final products in order to guarantee the quality. Here are three main points for the tube’s inspection process.
There is no cracks, lack of fusion, porosity, slag and spatter for the welded joint’s surface. As these drawbacks would finally have big influence for the good quality of a steel tube. Pipeline design temperature is below -29 degrees, fan ruler of hardened stainless steel and alloy steel pipes tend to be larger weld surface, without undercut.
Nondestructive test is necessary on the pipe’s surface. Different steel pipe with various functions should take different pressure taking. Thus, magnetic iron pipe should be used in magnetic particle testing; non-ferromagnetic steel should be used in penetration testing.
Ray inspection and ultrasonic testing. Ray inspection and ultrasonic testing is the main target of the butt joint pressure pipe and pipe fittings for butt joints.
How to choose steel pipes
Choose a steel pipe according to its working pressure
Short-distance and long distance pipeline, no matter seamless steel pipe for oil and gas transportation, or welded one for water transportation, would have great difference on choosing.
To some extent, working pressure and diameter would decide the pipeline’s design of framework technical parameters.
First of all, working pressure directly determines the number of pumping stations and compressor stations, steel consumption in the power station unit and piping.
Working pressure on the economy and security of the pipeline project is the first. Working pressure is an important part of the design of oil and gas pipelines, the technical and economic conditions of its great influence on the pipeline, the pipeline operating pressure is not too high; optimum working pressure gas pipeline and gas pipeline construction investment and operating costs related to; generally, the high pressure tends to work best value.
Tips to Choose Good Quality Seamless Steel Pipes
- As for good quality seamless steel pipes, its cross section should be smooth and even. If you see there is burr or uneven cross section, do not pick up these defective seamless steel pipes.
- You need to know the percent of impurities. Weight the pipes and measure its density. If it is low density, light seamless steel pipes will be poor quality.
- Check trademark. There will be standard trademark and words on seamless steel pipe from good quality seamless steel pipes manufacturers.
- Check the shape of seamless steel pipes. As for poor quality pipes, you will find oval shape on the side of it.
- Check the surface of seamless steel pipes. Bad rolling technology produce rough surface seamless steel pipes. Do not choose poor surface seamless steel pipes.
How to Choose Quality 304 Stainless Steel Pipes
Firstly, before the selection of 304 stainless steel pipe, you should consider its usage and environment. We often use weld pipe for decoration, seamless steel pipes for fluid delivery, sanitary stainless steel pipes for medical or kitchen, thick-walled steel pipes for pressure. 200 series material can be used for indoors and 304 can be used for outdoors. In the alkaline or coastal areas, level over 316 materials are generally used.
Secondly, the selection of 304 stainless steel pipes must be standard. From the price analysis, if the 304 stainless steel pipe is lower than 301, then you should carefully identify. It is likely replaced by other materials. Recognize whether the surface has the material words “304”, and check the quality certificate from manufacturer. Using acid reagent for test, 304 stainless steel pipes will not change color after 30 seconds but 201 will getting black. If you need to purchase in bulk, you’d better take some samples to the national authority for component testing.
Thirdly, observe the outer surface and inner wall color if it is bright and smooth, the thickness is uniform or rough. Generally, welded pipe need not to check. However, seamless steel pipe is manufactured by cold drawn or hot rolling, the surface is to crack with improper operation in the production process. If the surface is rough, it generally means seamless steel pipes have not been polished.
There are more and more people choose to use carbon steel pipe in the construction. Why? Next, yaang will show you some advantages of carbon steel pipe for all of you.
A.Safe and durable
We all know that steel is a frequently-used material because it is durable and safe. Since steel is non-combustible and makes it harder for fire to spread, it is good to use when building homes. Carbon steel pipe is highly resistant to shock and vibration. Fluctuating water pressure or shock pressure from a water hammer have little effect on steel. And carbon steel pipe is practically unbreakable in transport and service, and for this reason it is okay to lay water mains under roadways.
B. Environmental protection
Using steel for pipes is not only safer for people, but it is safer for the earth. Steel can be recycled. Each year, about 70 percent of all steel is recycled in North America, more than paper, aluminum, plastic and glass combined. Steel products can be recycled over and over without losing any strength. Almost half the world’s steel is produced in electric plants that use recycled scraps and generate no CO2 emissions.
For any given pressure, carbon steel pipes can be made much thinner than pipes made from other materials, so they have a greater carrying capacity than pipes of other materials with the same diameter. The unmatched strength of steel piping increases longevity and reduces the need for replacement and repairs.Its versatility also makes it cost-effective. Yaang can make pipes in many dimensions, from less than an inch to over five feet. They can be bent and wrought to curve and fit anywhere they need to be. Joints, valves and other fittings are widely available at good prices.
How to Choose the SSAW Carbon Steel Pipe Manufacturer
Usage of SSAW carbon steel pipe is relatively high, the application is very wide, it should be how to choose before in the selection to pay attention to quality.
The first method is a more professional detection method, that is, by the strength of the pressure vessel to be detected. Commonly, we use atmospheric pressure and water pressure to detect, in this way can detect the working conditions of the SSAW carbon steel pipe in the pressure working environment, but also to detect the tightness of the spiral steel pipe, generally take the atmospheric pressure detection, because such security Relatively high, and if the water vapor pressure through the test, then the need to remove the spiral pipe after the water, too much trouble.
The second method is also relatively simple, that is, through the surface of observation. With the naked eye found in the spiral steel pipe in the welding and size of the problem, if necessary, you can also use the standard sample and the products to be compared to find the problem. In general, formal steel pipe company in the production is relatively perfect, on the other hand to beat the metal pipe, if the sound is very crisp and the echo is not very dirty, then the name is the latest selection of steel pipe, rather than scrap steel recycling.
These two methods are commonly used, we can choose a way to test, more secure way is the best to the regular manufacturers, can reduce the use of the process of abuse.
Source: Network Arrangement – China Steel Pipes Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.steeljrv.com)
(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)
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