What is hastelloy alloy?

What is hastelloy alloy?

Hastelloy steel is a kind of nickel base alloy, which is mainly divided into B, C and G series at present. It is mainly used in iron-based Cr Ni or Cr Ni Mo stainless steel, non-metallic materials and other occasions with strong corrosive media that cannot be used. It has been widely used in many fields such as petroleum, chemical industry, environmental protection and so on. Its grade and typical use occasions are shown in the table below.


Designation of Hastelloy

In order to improve the corrosion resistance, cold and hot working properties of Hastelloy, three major improvements have been made,
Its development process is as follows:

  • Series B: B → B-2 (00ni70mo28) → B-3
  • C series: C → C-276 (00cr16mo16w4) → C-4 (00cr16mo16) → C-22 (00cr22mo13w3) → C-2000 (00cr20mo16)
  • G Series: G → G-3 (00cr22ni48mo7cu) → G-30 (00cr30ni48mo7cu)

At present, the second generation materials n10665 (b-2), N10276 (C-276), n06022 (C-22), n06455 (C-4) and n06985 (G-3) are widely used. The third generation materials n10675 (B-3), n10629 (B-4) and n06059 (c-59) are in the promotion stage. Due to the progress of metallurgical technology, in recent years, there have been many brands of so-called “super stainless steel” containing ~ 6% Mo, which has replaced the G series alloy, making the production and use of G series alloy decline rapidly.

Chemical composition of typical Hastelloy

Chemical composition of materials

Ni

Cr

Mo

Fe

C

Si

Co

Mn

P

S

W

V

Cu

Nb+Ta

N10665 (B-2)

Base

≤1.0

26.0~30

≤2.0

≤0.02

≤0.10

≤1.0

≤1.0

≤0.04

≤0.03

N10276 (C-276)

Base

14.5~16.5

15.0~ 17.0

4.0~7.0

≤0.01

≤0.08

≤2.5

≤1.0

≤0.04

≤0.03

3.0~ 4.5

≤0.035

N06007 (G-3)

Base

21.0~23.5

6.0~ 8.0

18.0~21

≤0.015

≤1.0

≤5.0

≤1.0

≤0.04

≤0.03

≤1.5

1.5~2.5

≤0.50

Mechanical properties of Hastelloy

The mechanical properties of Hastelloy alloy are very outstanding, it has the characteristics of high strength and toughness, so it has certain difficulties in machining, and its strain hardening tendency is very strong, when the deformation rate reaches 15%, it is about twice that of 18-8 stainless steel. There is also a middle temperature sensitization zone in Hastelloy alloy, and its sensitization tendency increases with the increase of deformation rate. When the temperature is high, the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Hastelloy alloy decrease because of its easy absorption of harmful elements.

Mechanical properties of materials

Grade of alloy Standard of plate Thickness(mm) σb(Mpa) σ0.2(Mpa) δ5
(%)
Hardness(HRB)
N10665(B-2) ASTM B333-1998 4.76  4.76~63.5 760               760 350            350 40%        40% 100        100
N10276(C-276) ASTM B575-1999 63.5  0.51~63.5 690            621 283           241 40%         40% 100        100
N06007(G-3) ASTM B582-1997

Commonly used Hastelloy

Hastelloy B-2

Corrosion resistance of Hastelloy B-2

Hastelloy B-2 alloy is a kind of Ni Mo alloy with very low carbon content and silicon content. It reduces the precipitation of carbide and other phases in the weld and heat affected zone, thus ensuring good corrosion resistance even in the welding state.
As we all know, Hastelloy B-2 alloy has excellent corrosion resistance in various reducing media, and can withstand the corrosion of hydrochloric acid at any temperature and concentration under normal pressure. It has excellent corrosion resistance in non oxidizing sulfuric acid of medium concentration, phosphoric acid of various concentrations, high temperature acetic acid, formic acid and other organic acids, bromic acid and hydrogen chloride gas, and it is also resistant to the corrosion of halogen catalyst. Therefore, Hastelloy B-2 alloy is usually used in many harsh petroleum and chemical processes, such as distillation and concentration of hydrochloric acid, alkylation of ethylbenzene and low-pressure carbonylation to acetic acid.
However, it has been found in many years of industrial application that: (1) there are two sensitized regions in Hastelloy B-2 which have a considerable influence on the intergranular corrosion resistance: the high temperature region of 1200-1300 ℃ and the medium temperature region of 550-900 ℃; (2) the weld metal and the heat affected region of Hastelloy B-2 alloy are more sensitive to intergranular corrosion due to the dendrite segregation and the precipitation of intergranular phase and carbide along the grain boundary (3) the medium temperature thermal stability of Hastelloy B-2 alloy is poor. When the content of iron in Hastelloy B-2 alloy drops below 2%, the alloy is sensitive to the transformation of β phase (i.e. ni4mo phase, an ordered intermetallic compound). When the alloy stays in the temperature range of 650-750 ℃ for a little longer, β phase is formed in an instant. The existence of β phase reduces the toughness of Hastelloy B-2 alloy, makes it sensitive to stress corrosion, and even causes the cracking of Hastelloy B-2 alloy in raw material production (such as hot rolling process), equipment manufacturing process (such as overall post weld heat treatment of Hastelloy B-2 alloy equipment) and Hastelloy B-2 alloy equipment in service environment. At present, the standard test method for the intergranular corrosion resistance of Hastelloy B-2 alloy designated by China and other countries is the atmospheric boiling hydrochloric acid method, and the evaluation method is the weight loss method. Because Hastelloy B-2 alloy is a kind of anti hydrochloric acid corrosion alloy, the method of boiling hydrochloric acid at atmospheric pressure is not sensitive to the intergranular corrosion tendency of Hastelloy B-2 alloy. The corrosion resistance of Hastelloy B-2 alloy depends not only on its chemical composition, but also on its hot working process. When the hot working process is not controlled properly, not only the grains of Hastelloy B-2 alloy grow up, but also the σ phase with high Mo will appear in the intergranular phase. At this time, the intergranular corrosion resistance of Hastelloy B-2 alloy is obviously reduced. In the high temperature hydrochloric acid test, the etching depth of the grain boundary between the coarse grain plate and the normal plate is about twice.

Physical properties of Hastelloy B-2

The physical properties of Hastelloy B-2 alloy are shown in the table below.
Density: 9.2g/cm3, melting point: 1330 ~ 1380 ℃, permeability: (℃, RT) ≤ 1.001
Physical property

Temperature        (℃)

Specific heat     J/kg-k

Thermal conductivity W/m-k

Resistivity      (μΩcm

Modulus of elasticity   Gpa

Coefficient of thermal expansion from room temperature to t10-6/K

0

373

137

218

20

377

11.1

137

217

100

389

12.2

138

213

10.3

200

406

13.4

138

208

10.8

300

423

14.6

139

203

11.1

400

431

16.0

139

197

11.4

500

444

17.3

141

191

11.6

600

456

18.7

146

184

11.8

700

176

Chemical constituents of Hastelloy B-2

Element

Ni

Cr

Fe

C

Mn

Si

Cu

Mo

Co

P

S

Minimum

Allowance

0.4

1.6

26.0

Maximum

1.0

2.0

0.01

1.0

0.08

0.5

30.0

1.0

0.02

0.010

Mechanical properties of Hastelloy B-2

The general mechanical properties of Hastelloy B-2 alloy are shown in the following two tables
Minimum mechanical property value at room temperature (refer to DIN / ASTM standard)

Product form

Size    (mm)

0.2% yield strength(Mpa)

1.0% yield strength(Mpa)

Tensile strength(Mpa)

Elongation A 5%

Brinell hardness   HB

Grain size(μm

Cold rolled strip

5

340

380

755

40

250

127

Hot rolled sheet

5~65

214

Bar

325

370

745

Pipe

340

360

755

ASTM standard

350

760

241

The same as above

Minimum mechanical properties at high temperature

Product form

0.2% yield strengthMpa)℃

1.0% yield strengthMpa)℃

100

200

300

400

100

200

300

400

Plate

315

285

270

255

355

325

310

295

Pipe

Bar

300

275

255

240

340

315

300

285

Processing and heat treatment of Hastelloy B-2

1: Heating
For Hastelloy B-2, it is very important to keep the surface clean and away from pollutants before and during heating. If Hastelloy B-2 is heated in the environment containing sulfur, phosphorus, lead or other low melting point metal pollutants, it will become brittle, and the sources of these pollutants mainly include marker marks, temperature indicating paint, grease and liquid, smoke. The flue gas must have low sulfur content; for example, if the sulfur content of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas does not exceed 0.1%, the sulfur content of urban air does not exceed 0.25g/m3, and the sulfur content of fuel oil does not exceed 0.5%, it is qualified.
The gas environment of the heating furnace is required to be neutral or light reducing environment, and can not fluctuate between oxidation and reduction. The flame in the furnace can not directly impact Hastelloy B-2. At the same time, the material shall be heated to the required temperature at the fastest heating speed, that is, the temperature of the heating furnace shall be raised to the required temperature first, and then the material shall be put into the furnace for heating.
2: Hot working
Hastelloy B-2 can be hot worked in the range of 900 ~ 1160 ℃, after which it should be quenched with water. In order to ensure the best corrosion resistance, annealing should be carried out after hot working.
3: Cold working
The cold worked Hastelloy B-2 must be solution treated. Because it has much higher work hardening rate than austenitic stainless steel, the forming equipment should be considered carefully. If the cold forming process is carried out, it is necessary to carry out interstage annealing.
When the cold working deformation is more than 15%, solution treatment shall be carried out before use.
4: Heat treatment
The solution heat treatment temperature should be controlled between 1060 ~ 1080 ℃, and then water-cooled quenching or air cooling can be carried out when the material thickness is more than 1.5mm to obtain the best corrosion resistance. In any process of heating operation, the surface cleaning of materials shall be prevented in advance. During the heat treatment of Hastelloy alloy materials or equipment parts, the following problems should be paid attention to: in order to prevent the deformation of equipment parts during the heat treatment, stainless steel reinforcing rings should be used; the furnace temperature, heating and cooling time should be strictly controlled; before the furnace installation, the heat treatment parts should be pretreated to prevent the generation of heat cracks; after the heat treatment, the heat treatment parts should be 100% Pt; during the heat treatment, if Special repair welding process shall be adopted for those who need repair welding after grinding and eliminating hot cracks.
5: Descaling
The oxide on the surface of Hastelloy B-2 and the spot near the weld should be polished with fine grinding wheel.
Because B-2 of Hastelloy is sensitive to oxidizing medium, more nitrogen-containing gas will be produced during pickling.
6: Machining
The machining of Hastelloy B-2 should be carried out in annealed state, and the work hardening of Hastelloy B-2 should have a clear understanding. For example, compared with standard austenitic stainless steel, the surface cutting speed should be slower, the hardened layer of the surface should be larger, and the cutter should be in continuous working state.
7: Welding
The weld metal and heat affected zone of Hastelloy B-2 are easy to precipitate β phase and lead to poor Mo, which is easy to produce intergranular corrosion. Therefore, the welding process of Hastelloy B-2 should be carefully formulated and strictly controlled. The general welding process is as follows: erni-mo7 is selected as the welding material; GTAW is used as the welding method; the control layer temperature is not more than 120 ℃; the diameter of welding wire is φ 2.4, φ 3.2; the welding current is 90 ~ 150A. At the same time, before welding, the welding wire, the groove of the welded part and the adjacent parts shall be decontaminated and degreased.
The heat transfer coefficient of Hastelloy B-2 is much smaller than that of steel. If single V groove is selected, the groove angle should be about 70 ° and the heat input should be low.
After PWHT, residual stress can be eliminated and stress corrosion cracking resistance can be improved.

Hastelloy C-276

Corrosion resistance of Hastelloy C-276

Hastelloy C-276 belongs to nickel molybdenum chromium iron tungsten system. It is one of the most corrosion resistant modern metal materials. It has good corrosion resistance in low and medium temperature hydrochloric acid. Therefore, in the past 30 years, in the harsh corrosive environment, such as chemical industry, petrochemical industry, flue gas desulfurization, pulp and paper industry, environmental protection and other industrial fields have been widely used.
All kinds of corrosion data of Hastelloy C-276 are typical, but they can not be used as specifications, especially in unknown environment. It is necessary to test before material selection. There is not enough Cr in Hastelloy C-276 to resist strong oxidizing environment, such as hot concentrated nitric acid. The production of this alloy is mainly aimed at the chemical process environment, especially in the presence of mixed acid, such as the discharge pipe of flue gas desulfurization system. The following table is the corrosion Comparison of four alloys in different environments
Test conditions. (all welding samples shall be self melting TIG welding)

Corrosion test of four metals in different environments

Test environment (boiling)

Corrosion rate (mm /a)

 

Typical 316

AL-6XN

Inconel625

C-276

 

Basic metal sample

Welding sample

Basic metal sample

Welding sample

Basic metal sample

Basic metal sample

Welding sample

20% acetic acid

0.003

0.003

0.0036

0.0018

0.0076

0.013

0.006

 

45% formic acid

0.277

0.262

0.116

0.142

0.13

0.07

0.049

 

10% oxalic acid

1.02

0.991

0.277

0.274

0.15

0.29

0.259

 

20% phosphoric acid

0.177

0.155

0.007

0.006

0.001

0.001

0.0006

 

10% sulfamic acid

1.62

1.58

0.751

0.381

0.12

0.07

0.061

 

10% sulphuric acid

9.44

9.44

2.14

2.34

0.64

0.35

0.503

 

10% sodium bicarbonate

1.06

1.06

0.609

0.344

0.10

0.07

0.055

 

Hastelloy C-276 can be used as a FGD component of coal-fired system, in which C-276 is the most corrosion-resistant material. The following table shows the corrosion Comparison Test of C-276 alloy and typical 316 in the “green death” solution of flue gas simulation system.

Corrosion contrast test in “green death” solution

“Green death” solution (boiling)

Corrosion rate (mm /a)

Typical 316

C-276

7% sulphuric acid

Destruction

0.67

3% hydrochloric acid

1%CuCl2

1%FeCl3

It can be seen from the above table that C-276 alloy has good corrosion resistance to mixed acid and salt solutions with chloride ions.
The addition of Cr, Mo and W in Hastelloy C-276 greatly improves the resistance of C-276 to pitting and crevice corrosion. C-276 alloy is considered to be inert in seawater environment, so C-276 is widely used in ocean, brine and high chlorine environment, even in the case of strong acid and low pH value. The following table is a comparison of crevice corrosion of four metals in 6% FeCl3 (as per ASTM standard g-48).

Occurrence of crevice corrosion

Alloy

Occurrence temperature of crevice corrosion

°F

°C

Typical 316

27

2.5

AL-6XN

113

45

Inconel625

113

45

C-276

140

60

The high content of Ni and Mo in C-276 alloy also makes it highly resistant to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking. The following table shows the stress corrosion cracking tests of four metals in different chloride ion solutions.

Stress corrosion cracking test of chloride ion

Test solution

Test time (hours) and test results of bending U-shaped specimen

Typical 316

AL-6XN

Inconel 625

C-276

42%MgCl2(boiling)

Failed (24 hours)

Both(1000 hours)

Resistance(1000 hours)

Resistance(1000 hours)

33%LiCl(boiling)

Failed(100 hours)

Resistance(1000 hours)

Resistance(1000 hours)

Resistance(1000 hours)

26%NaCl(boiling)

Failed(300 hours)

Resistance(1000 hours)

Resistance(1000 hours)

Resistance(1000 hours)

Physical properties of Hastelloy C-276

The physical properties of C-276 alloy are as follows:

Density: 8.90g/cm3, specific heat: 425j / kg / K, modulus of elasticity: 205gpa (21 ℃)

Thermal conductivity

Temperature

Thermal conductivity

W/m.K

-168

7.3

-73

8.7

21

10.2

93

11.0

204

13.0

316

15.1

427

17.0

538

19.0

Coefficient of linear expansion

From 21 ℃ to

Coefficient of linear expansion

10-6 /

93

11.2

204

12.0

316

12.8

427

13.2

538

13.4

Mechanical properties of Hastelloy C-276

The tensile test results of a typical C-276 alloy are shown in the table below. The material is annealed at 1150 ℃ and quenched with water.

Test value of mechanical properties

Temperature    ()

Yield strength σ0.2      (Mpa)

tensile strength σb      (Mpa)

Elongation rate δ5           %

-196

565

965

45

-101

480

895

50

21

415

790

50

93

380

725

50

204

345

710

50

316

315

675

55

427

290

655

60

538

270

640

60

The strength of alloy C-276 increases with cold deformation. In the impact test, the V-groove impact specimen adopts a 10 mm thick plate (the plate shall be annealed). If the specimen is a welded specimen, it will show a certain flexibility in the same temperature range, which is due to the reason of the weld. The results of plate impact test are shown in the table below.

Test temperature (℃)

Impact energy of V-groove specimen (J)

-196

245

21

325

200

325

Alloy C-276 has similar formability to ordinary austenitic stainless steel. However, due to its higher strength than ordinary austenitic stainless steel, there will be greater stress in the cold forming process. In addition, the work hardening rate of this material is much faster than that of ordinary stainless steel. Therefore, in the process of extensive cold forming, it is necessary to take the intermediate annealing treatment.

Welding and heat treatment of hastelloy c-276

The welding performance of alloy C-276 is similar to that of ordinary austenitic stainless steel. Before using a welding method to weld C-276, measures must be taken to minimize the corrosion resistance of the weld and the heat affected zone, such as GTAW, GMAW, saw or some other factors that can minimize the corrosion resistance of the weld and the heat affected zone Welding method. However, it is not suitable for welding methods such as oxyacetylene welding which may increase the carbon content or silicon content in the weld and heat affected zone.
For the selection of welding joint form, the successful experience of C-276 welding joint in ASME Boiler and pressure vessel code can be referred.
The welding groove is best machined, but machining will bring work hardening, so it is necessary to polish the groove before welding.
Proper heat input speed shall be adopted during welding to prevent hot crack.
In most corrosive environments, C-276 can be used as a weldment. However, in very harsh environment, C-276 materials and weldments need solution heat treatment to obtain the best corrosion resistance.
Alloy C-276 can be used as welding material or filler metal. If it is required to add some components to the weld of C-276, such as other nickel base alloy or stainless steel, and these welds will be exposed to corrosive environment, then the welding rod or welding wire used for welding shall have corrosion resistance equivalent to that of the base metal.
The solution heat treatment of Hastelloy C-276 consists of two processes: (1) heating at 1040 ℃ ~ 1150 ℃; (2) rapidly cooling to the black state (about 400 ℃) within two minutes, so the treated material has good corrosion resistance. Therefore, stress relieving heat treatment of Hastelloy C-276 is invalid. Before heat treatment, all the dirt on the alloy surface, such as oil stain, which may produce carbon element during heat treatment, shall be cleaned.
Oxide will be produced on the surface of alloy C-276 during welding or heat treatment, which will reduce the Cr content in the alloy and affect the corrosion resistance. Therefore, the surface of alloy C-276 should be cleaned. Stainless steel wire brush or grinding wheel can be used. Next, pickling can be carried out by immersion in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid with appropriate proportion, and finally washing with clean water.

Hastelloy C-22

Corrosion resistance and product form of Hastelloy C-22

Hastelloy C-22 is a kind of Ni Cr Mo alloy, which has strong resistance to pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion fracture. Due to the interaction of Ni, Cr, Mo and W, C-22 alloy has excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of oxidation and reduction environments.
As shown in the table below, Hastelloy C-22 has outstanding corrosion resistance in most harsh environments, which is resistant to the precipitation of intergranular carbide and the generation of multiple phases in welding or forging operations.

Corrosion test data in boiling solution

Test solution

State of the specimen

Alloy

Corrosion ratemm/a

HCl(1%)

Standard plate

C-22

0.36

C-276

0.33

625

0.92

HCl(1%)

Welding stateGTAW

C-22

0.329

C-276

0.293

625

H3PO4(20%)

Standard plate

C-22

0.003

C-276

0.010

625

0.010

H3PO4(20%)

Welding stateGTAW

C-22

0.003

C-276

0.005

625

H2SO4(10%.)

Standard plate

C-22

0.351

C-276

0.353

625

0.642

H2SO4(10%)

Welding stateGTAW

C-22

0.351

C-276

0.503

625

FeCl3(6%)

Standard plate

C-22

0.015

C-276

625

FeCl3(6%)

Welding stateGTAW

C-22

0.015

C-276

625

The following table shows the corrosion test data in accordance with ASTM standards

ASTM Test Method

State of the specimen

Alloy

Corrosion rate(mm/a)

G28/PracticeA

Standard plate

C-22

1.63

C-276

5.59

625

0.58

G28/PracticeA

Welding stateGTAW

C-22

1.63

C-276

625

G28/PracticeB

Standard plate

C-22

0.42

C-276

1.14

625

89

G28/PracticeB

Welding stateGTAW

C-22

0.36

C-276

625

G28/PracticeC

Standard plate

C-22

1.72

C-276

23.1

625

G28/PracticeC

Welding stateGTAW

C-22

1.77

C-276

23.4

625

G28/PracticeD

Standard plate

C-22

3.47

C-276

625

G28/PracticeD

Welding stateGTAW

C-22

2.85

C-276

625

  • G28 / practica = boiling Fe2 (SO4) 3 + 50% H2SO4 / 24 hours
  • G28 / practiceb = boiling 23% H2SO4 + 1.2% HCl + 1% FeCl3 + 1% CuCl2 / 24 hours
  • G28 / practicec = boiling 65% HNO3 / 5-48 hours exposure to air
  • G28 / practiced = boiling 10% hno3-3% HF / 2-2 hours exposure to air

Hastelloy C-22 alloy is widely used in flue gas desulfurization system, bleaching system in pulp and paper industry, waste incinerator, chemical plant, pharmaceutical plant, radioactive waste storage and other industrial fields.
Hastelloy C-22 alloy has high strength, good ductility, weldability and formability, so it is described in detail in ASME and ASTM standards. Its material products are plate, strip, tube, bar and forging, etc.

ASME and ASTM standards for Hastelloy C-22 materials

Product form

Explain

ASTM

ASME

Plate and strip

B575

SB575

Welded Pipe

B619

SB619

B626

SB626

Seamless Pipe

B622

SB622

Chemical constituents of Hastelloy C-22

Chemical element

Standard range of UNS (weight percentage)

C

0.015max

S

0.02 max

Si

0.08 max

Cr

20.022.5

Mo

12.514.5

V

0.35 max

Co

2.50 max

W

2.503.50

Fe

2.006.00

Ni

Allowance

Physical properties of Hastelloy C-22

The physical properties of C-22 alloy with typical chemical composition in annealed state.

Project

Numerical value

Unit

Density at 22 ℃

8.62

g/cm3

Melting temperature range

1354-1388

Thermal conductivity at 53 ℃

9.4

W/m-K

Coefficient of thermal expansion at 20-217 ℃

12.44

μm/m/

Specific heat at 22 ℃

422

J/kg-

Modulus of elasticity at 22 ℃

207

GPa

Weldability of Hastelloy C-22

The welding performance of Hastelloy C-22 alloy is very good. It can be easily welded by gas tungsten arc welding, gas metal arc welding, submerged arc welding and other methods. The filler metal should have the chemical composition matching with it.

Mechanical properties of Hastelloy C-22

Hastelloy C-22 alloy has good hot working properties. The mechanical properties of the annealed sheet at room temperature are shown in the table below, and the thickness range of the tested sheet is 4.76mm to 50.8mm

Project

Typical sheet

ASTM B575

Yield strength (0.2% deformation)

345MPa

310*MPa

Tensile strength

724MPa

690*MPa

Elongation% (51mm)

67%

45%

Hardness

87HRB

100**HRB

*Min * * Max

Hastelloy C-59

Hastelloy C-59 is an ultra-low carbon Ni Cr Mo alloy with excellent corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength. Its nature is as follows:

  1. It has a wide range of corrosion resistance under oxidation and reduction conditions;
  2. It has good resistance to pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion, and has immune characteristics to stress corrosion cracking caused by chlorine.
  3. It has good corrosion resistance to inorganic acids such as nitric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid hydrochloric acid;
  4. It also has good corrosion resistance to inorganic acids containing impurities;
  5. It has good corrosion resistance to any concentration of hydrochloric acid below 40 ℃;
  6. It is allowed to be used on pressure vessel between – 196-450 ℃;
  7. Approved by NACE standard mr-01-75 grade VII for use in sour gas environment.

(NACE is the national electronic Advisory Council of the United States and India)

Chemical constituents of Hastelloy c-59

The chemical composition of c-59 alloy is shown below.
Chemical composition

Ni

Cr

Fe

C

Mn

Si

Mo

Co

Al

P

S

Min

Allowance

22.0

15.0

0.1

Max

24.0

1.5

0.010

0.5

0.01

16.5

0.3

0.4

0.015

0.005

Corrosion resistance and application of Hastelloy C-59

C-59 alloy is a kind of Ni Cr Mo alloy with very low carbon content and silicon content. It is not inclined to produce mesophase in the process of hot working and welding, so this alloy can be applied to the oxidizing and reducing media in the chemical process.
Due to the high content of Ni, Cr and Mo, c-59 has good corrosion resistance to chloride ion. In the standard corrosion test involving oxidizing environment, it has been confirmed that c-59 alloy has higher properties than other Ni Cr Mo alloy. C-59 alloy has good corrosion resistance in reducing environment, for example, the corrosion rate in 10% boiling sulfuric acid solution is about 1 / 3 of that of other Ni Cr Mo alloy, and it also has good corrosion resistance in hydrochloric acid environment.
The following two tables show different corrosion tests.
Test comparison of C-276 and c-59

Test medium

Corrosion rate(mm/a)

C-276

C-59

ASTM g28a boiling for 24 hours

5.0-6.0

0.625

ASTM G28B boiling for 24 hours

1.5

0.1

Corrosion test of three different alloys in different solutions

Test medium

Corrosion rate(mm/a)

Inconel625

C-276

C-59

Boiling of 10% H2SO4 for 3 × 7 days

1.0-1.2

0.575

0.15

20% H2SO4 + 150000ppm Cl – (NaCl) 3 × 7 days 80 ℃

0.03

0.08

0.03

50% H2SO4 + 150000ppm Cl – (NaCl) 3 × 7 days 50 ℃

0.65

0.42

0.38

98.5% H2SO4 3 × 7 days 150 ℃ / 200 ℃

—–

—–

0.28/0.15

The following table shows the CPT and CCCT tests of three alloys

Alloy

CPT

CCCT

Inconel625

100

85-95

C-276

115-120

105

C-59

130

110

Test solution: 7vol.% H2SO4 + 3vol.% HCl + 1% CuCl2 + 1% fecl3-6h2o (green dead solution), after aging for 24 hours, it increased at 5 ℃.

Application of Hastelloy c-59

C-59 alloy is used in chemical, petrochemical, energy and environmental protection engineering, etc.

  1. Chlorine containing organic process equipment, especially in the presence of halogenated acid catalyst;
  2. Dissolving and bleaching system equipment in pulp and paper industry;
  3. Preheater, valve, impeller and other components of incinerator and FGD system;
  4. Acid gas treatment system equipment and components;
  5. Acetic acid and acetic anhydride reactor;
  6. Sulfuric acid condenser.

Physical properties of Hastelloy C-59

  • Density: 8.6g/cm3
  • Melting point range: 1310-1360 ℃
  • Permeability: 20 ℃, RT ≤ 1.001

Physical properties at high temperature

Temperature ℃

Specific heat J / kg-k

Heat conductivity W / m-k

Resistivity      μΩcm

Modulus of elasticity   GPa

Coefficient of thermal expansion from room temperature to t

10-6/k

20

414

10.4

126

210

100

425

12.1

127

207

11.9

200

434

13.7

129

200

12.2

300

443

15.4

131

196

12.5

400

451

17.0

133

190

12.7

500

459

18.6

134

185

12.9

600

464

20.4

133

178

13.1

Mechanical properties of Hastelloy C-59

The following table shows the mechanical properties of c-59 alloy in solution treatment state.

Minimum mechanical properties at room temperature

Product form

Size       mm

0.2% yield strength (Mpa)

1.0% yield strength (Mpa)

tensile strength  (Mpa)

Elongation rate  δ5    (%)

Sheet and strip*

0.5-6.4

340

380

690

40

Plate*

5.0-30

Bar

100

*Mechanical value according to VDTüV data 505

The following table is based on the German national standard VDTüV data 505, the mechanical property values at high temperature.

Temperature    

0.2% yield strength

1.0% yield strength

tensile strength

Elongation rate δ5  (%)

MPa

ksi

MPa

ksi

MPa

ksi

93

43

48

95(91)

50

100

290

330

650(620)

200

250

290

615(585)

204

36

42

89(85)

300

220

260

580(550)

316

31

37

84(80)

400

190

230

545(515)

427

26

32

77(74)

450

175

215

525(495)

  • ① For materials with a plate thickness between 30-50mm, the yield strength value shall be reduced by 20MPa
  • ② Bar only

Maximum allowable stress

Material temperature 

Forgings, bars, plates, strips

MPa

ksi

38

25.0

93

25.0

100

172

149

24.7

200

161

204

23.3

260

22.0

300

147

316

20.9

343

20.4

371

19.8

399

19.4

400

134

The weld coefficient of welded pipe fittings is 0.85

Impact energy of V-groove of Hastelloy c-59

Average at room temperature:

  • More than 225J/cm2
  • -196 ℃: ≥ 200 J / cm2

Crystal structure of Hastelloy c-59

C-59 alloy has face centered cubic crystal structure.

Manufacturing and heat treatment of Hastelloy c-59

C-59 alloy can be easily processed by ordinary manufacturing process.
1. Heating
C-59 alloy can not contact with any pollutant before and during heat treatment.
Heating in the environment containing s, P, Pb and other low melting point metals will degrade the properties of c-59 alloy. The main sources of pollutants are marker marks, temperature indicating paint, chalk, lubricating grease, fuel, etc.
The sulfur content of heating furnace fuel must be low, the sulfur content of natural gas must be less than 0.1% (quality), and the sulfur content of fuel oil shall not be more than 0.5%.
The furnace gas environment should be slightly oxidable, and should not fluctuate between oxidability and reducibility. Do not allow the flame to directly impact the alloy material.
2. Hot working
C-59 alloy can be hot worked at 950-1180 ℃. Cooling should be done with water.
Annealing after hot working can ensure that the material has good corrosion resistance.
3. Cold working
Annealed c-59 alloy can be used for cold working. The work hardening rate of c-59 alloy is very high, and the requirements for forming equipment are higher.
When cold forming is carried out, annealing between processes is necessary.
4. Heat treatment
Solution heat treatment temperature should be 1100-1180 ℃, preferably 1120 ℃.
Water cooling is the basic point to ensure the best corrosion resistance of materials. During any hot operation, the material surface must be clean.
5. Scale removal
The oxide near the weld of c-59 alloy is much tighter than that of other stainless steel, so it can be polished with a fine grinding wheel.
Before pickling, the oxide and stain on the surface of the material can be polished with a fine grinding wheel or stainless steel wire brush.
6. Machining
Machined c-59 alloy should be solution treated. Because of its high work hardening rate, compared with low alloy austenitic stainless steel, it is necessary to adopt a lower surface cutting speed, and a large amount of feed to ignore the surface with higher hardness. At the same time, keep the cutter in continuous operation.

Welding of Hastelloy c-59

When welding nickel base alloy, the following operating procedures shall be observed:
1. Workplace
The welding field of c-59 alloy should be independent. It is better to separate it from the carbon steel processing field without air flow disturbance.
2. Dress
Leather gloves and overalls shall be used for welding.
3. Machining tools and machinery
The tools shall be special nickel base alloy tools, and the manufacturing and processing machinery, such as plate cutting machine, plate rolling machine, pressing machine, etc., shall be covered with felt, cardboard, plastic, etc. to prevent the surface of c-59 alloy from being pressed into pollutants during the processing, resulting in the final corrosion.
4. Clean up
Acetone shall be used for cleaning weld area of base metal and filler metal.
5. Groove preparation
The welding groove of c-59 alloy can be formed by mechanical methods, such as turning, grinding or planing; plasma cutting can also be used, but the groove after cutting shall be polished clean, and the groove nearby shall not be overheated.
6. Generally, the groove angle shall be brushed with stainless steel wire to remove the oxidized part immediately after welding.
The general difference between nickel base alloy and special stainless steel compared with common carbon steel is that they have lower thermal conductivity and higher thermal expansion. The welding leg is large (1-3 mm), and the groove angle is about 60-70 °. The main reason is that the molten metal of c-59 alloy has high viscosity, and its shrinkage tendency is relatively large after welding.
7. Starting arc
During arc striking, it can only be carried out in the weld area to be welded, not on the completed weldment, so as to avoid the corrosion resistance degradation.
8. Welding process
C-59 alloy can be welded by many conventional welding processes, such as TIG / GTAW, MIG / MAG, manual metal welding, plasma arc welding, etc. However, cleaning before welding is necessary.
9. Welding parameters and related influencing factors
During welding, the heat input shall be selected carefully. Generally, the lower heat input shall be used, and the interlayer temperature shall not exceed 150 ℃. At the same time, the thin weld bead welding process is used. The following table shows the welding parameters of c-59 alloy.

Welding parameters

Plate thickness

mm

Welding method

Filler metal

Welding parameters

Welding speed cm/min

Gas flow rate l/min

Plasma gas flow l/min

Size of plasma welding nozzle mm

Size mm

Speed m/cm

Root welding layer

Middle and upper

A

V

A

V

3.0

Manual GTAW

2.0

90

10

110-120

11

10-15

8-101

6.0

Manual GTAW

2.0-2.4

100-110

10

120-130

12

10-15

8-101

8.0

Manual GTAW

2.4

110-120

11

130-140

12

10-15

8-101

10.0

Manual GTAW

2.4

110-120

11

130-140

12

10-15

8-101

3.0

Automatic GTAW

1.2

0.5

Manual control

150

10

25

15-201

5.0

Automatic GTAW

1.2

0.5

Manual control

150

10

25

15-201

2.0

Hot wire GTAW

1.0

0.3

180

10

80

15-201

10.0

Hot wire GTAW

1.2

0.45

Manual control

250

12

40

15-201

4.0

Plasma arc welding

1.2

0.5

165

25

25

301

3.01

3.2

6.0

Plasma arc welding

1.2

0.5

190-200

25

25

301

3.51

3.2

8.0

MIG/MAG2

1.0

~8

GTAW

130-140

23-27

24-30

18-201

10.0

MIG/MAG2

1.2

~5

GTAW

130-150

23-27

20-26

18-201

6.0

SMAW

2.5

40–70

~21

40-70

~21

8.0

SMAW

2.5-3.25

40–70

~21

70-100

~22

16.0

SMAW

4.0

90-130

~22

  • 1 = pure argon or argon + 3% hydrogen
  • 2 = helium shielded welding recommended

The table below shows the welding energy input
Welding energy input per unit length (reference value)

Welding technology

Energy input per unit length kJ/cm

Welding technology

Energy input per unit length kJ/cm

GTAW manual or automatic

Max8

MIG / MAG manual or automatic

Max11

Hot wire GTAW

Max6

SMAW

Max7

Plasma arc welding

Max10

Generally, the oxidized part shall be removed with stainless steel wire brush immediately after welding.

Hastelloy B-3

Hastelloy B-3 is a nickel-molybdenum alloy with excellent resistance to pitting, corrosion, and stress-corrosion cracking plus, thermal stability superior to that of alloy B-2. In addition, this nickel steel alloy has great resistance to knife-line and heat–affected zone attack. Alloy B-3 also withstands sulfuric, acetic, formic and phosphoric acids, and other non-oxidizing media. Furthermore, this nickel alloy has excellent resistance to hydrochloric acid at all concentrations and temperatures. Hastelloy B-3’s distinguishing feature is its ability to maintain excellent ductility during transient exposures to intermediate temperatures. Such exposures are routinely experienced during heat treatments associated with fabrication.

Limiting Factors of Hastelloy B-3

Alloy B-3 has poor corrosion resistance to oxidizing environments, therefore, it is not recommended for use in oxidizing media or in the presence of ferric or cupric salts because they may cause rapid premature corrosion failure. These salts may develop when hydrochloric acid comes in contact with iron and copper. Therefore, if this nickel steel alloy is used in conjunction with iron or copper piping in a system containing hydrochloric acid, the presence of these salts could cause the alloy to fail prematurely.

What are the characteristics of Hastelloy B-3?

  • Maintains excellent ductility during transient exposures to intermediate temperatures
  • Excellent resistance to pitting, corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking
  • Excellent resistance to knife-line and heat-affected zone attack
  • Excellent resistance to acetic, formic and phosphoric acids and other non-oxidizing media
  • Resistance to hydrochloric acid at all concentrations and temperatures
  • Thermal stability superior to alloy B-2

Chemical Composition, %

Ni Mo Fe C Co Cr Mn Si Ti W Al Cu
65.0 min 28.5 1.5 .01 max 3.0 max 1.5 3.0 max .10 max .2 max 3.0 max .50 max .20 max

In what applications is Hastelloy B-3 used?

  • Chemical processes
  • Vacuum furnaces
  • Mechanical components in reducing environments

Fabrication with Hastelloy B-3

Problems associated with fabrication of alloy B-2 components should be minimized with alloy B-3 due to its improved thermal stability. A low carbon content permits alloy B-3 to be used in the as-welded condition. Hastelloy B-3 has good overall forming and welding characteristics. This alloy can be forged or otherwise hot-worked, providing that it is held at 2250° F for a sufficient amount of time to bring the entire piece to temperature. Since it is a low carbon alloy, the use of lower hot finishing temperatures may be necessary to achieve grain size control. It may also be formed by cold working. Although it does work-harden somewhat rapidly, B-3 alloy components can be made using all common cold forming techniques. All common welding techniques may be used with alloy B-3, however, oxyacetylene and submerged arc welding processes are not recommended when the fabricated item is to be used in corrosive service.

ASTM Specifications

Pipe Smls Pipe Welded Tube Smls Tube Welded Sheet/Plate Bar Forging Fitting
B622 B619 B622 B626 B333 B335 B564 B366

Hastelloy B-2 (UNS N10665) Hastelloy B-3 (UNS N10675)
Summary A corrosion-resistant solid-solution nickel-molybdenum alloy, Hastelloy B-2 exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in aggressive reducing media such as hydrochloric acid in a wide range of temperatures and concentrations, as well as in medium-concentrated sulphuric acid even with limited chloride contamination. Can also be used in acetic and phosphoric acids, and to a wide range of organic acids. The alloy has good resistance to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Hastelloy B-3 alloy is an additional member of the nickel-molybdenum family of alloys with excellent resistance to hydrochloric acid at all concentrations and temperatures. It also withstands sulfuric, acetic, formic and phosphoric acids, and other nonoxidizing media. B-3 alloy has a special chemistry designed to achieve a level of thermal stability greatly superior to that of its predecessors, e.g. HASTELLOY B-2 alloy. B-3 alloy has excellent resistance to pitting corrosion, to stress-corrosion cracking and to knife-line and heat-affected zone attack.
Standard

Product Forms

Pipe, tube, sheet, plate, round bar ,flanes, valve, and forging. Pipe, tube, sheet, plate, round bar , flanes, valve, and forging.
Limiting Chemical Composition, %
Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max.
Ni Remainder Cu 0.5 C 0.02
Cr 1.0 Co 1.0 Si 0.1
Fe 2.0 Al P 0.04
Mo 26.0 30.0 Ti S 0.03
W Mn 1.0 N
Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. Max.
Ni 65.0 Cu 0.2 C 0.01
Cr 1 3 Co 3 Si 0.1
Fe 1 3 Al 0.5 P 0.03
Mo 27 32 Ti 0.2 S 0.01
W 3 Mn 3 V 0.2
Physical

Constants

Density,g/cm3 9.2
Melting Range,℃ 1330-1380
Melting Range,℃ 9.22
Melting Range,℃ 1330-1380
Typical

Mechanical

Properties

(Solution-treated)
Product forms Yield strenth Tensile strenth Elongation Brinell
hardness
Plate Sheet 340 755 40 250
Rod Bar 325 745
Pipe Tube 340 755
 
Tensile Properties of Sheet (Limited data for 0.125″ (3.2mm) bright annealed sheet
Test Temperature, ℃:Room
Tensile Strength, Mpa:860
Rp0.2 Yield Strength, Mpa: 420
Elongation in 51mm, %: 53.4
Microstructure

Hastelloy B-2 has a face-centered-cubic structure. The alloy’s controlled chemistry with minimum iron and chromium content reduces the risk of embrittlement occurring during fabrication, as this retards precipitation of Ni4Mo phase in the temperature range 700-800 ℃.

Hastelloy B-3 also has a face-centered-cubic structure.
Characters
1. Controled chemistry with a minimum iron and chrlmium content to retard the formation of ordered β-phase Ni4Mo ;

2. Significant corrosion resistance to reducing environment;

3. Excellent resistance to medium-concentrated sulphuric acid and a number of non-oxidizing acids;

4. Good resistance to chloride-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC);

5. Good resistance to a wide range of organic acids.

1. Maintains excellent ductility during transient exposures to intermediate temperatures;

2. Excellent resistance to pitting and stress-corrosion cracking

3. Excellent resistance to knife-line and heat-affected zone attack;

4. Excellent resistance to acetic, formic and phosphoric acids and other non-oxidizing media

5. Resistance to hydrochloric acid at all concentrations and temperatures;

6. Thermal stability superior to alloy B-2.

Corrosion Resistance The extremely low carbon and silicon content of Hastelloy B-2 reduces precipitation of carbides and other phases in the heat-affected zone of welds and ensures adequate corrosion resistance even in the welded condition. Hastelloy B-2 exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in aggressive reducing media such as hydrochloric acid in a wide range of temperatures and concentrations, as well as in medium-concentrated sulphuric acid even with limited chloride contamination. It can also be used in acetic and phosphoric acids. Optimum corrosion resistance can be obtained only if the material is in the correct metallurgical condition and exhibits a clean structure. 35 - What is hastelloy alloy?
Applications Hastelloy B-2 is used in a wide range of applications in the chemical process industry, especially for processes involving sulphuric, hydrochloric, phosphoric and acetic acid. B-2 is not recommended for use in the presence of ferric or cupric salts as these salts may cause rapid corrosion failure. Ferric or cupric salts may develop when hydrochloric acid comes in contact with iron or copper. Hastelloy B-3 alloy is suitable for use in all applications previously requiring the use of Hastelloy B-2 alloy. Like B-2 alloy, B-3 is not recommended for use in the presence of ferric or cupric salts as these salts may cause rapid corrosion failure. Ferric or cupric salts may develop when hydrochloric acid comes in contact with iron or copper.

Hastelloy X

Hastelloy X is a nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum superalloy with outstanding high temperature strength, oxidation resistance, and fabricability. Alloy X’s oxidation resistance is excellent up to 2200° F. This nickel steel alloy has also been found to be exceptionally resistant to stress-corrosion cracking in petrochemical applications. Matrix stiffening provided by the molybdenum content results in high strength in a solid-solution alloy having good fabrication characteristics. Although this nickel alloy is primarily noted for heat and oxidation resistance it also has good resistance to chloride stress-corrosion cracking, carburization, and excellent resistance to reducing or carburizing atmospheres. Two common conditions that often lead to early failure in high temperature alloys, carburization and nitriding, Hastelloy X resists.

What are the characteristics of Hastelloy X?

  • Outstanding oxidation resistance through 2000° F
  • Resistant to carburization and nitriding
  • Excellent high temperature strength
  • Good resistance to chloride stress-corrosion cracking

Chemical Composition, %

Ni Mo Cr Fe W Co Mn C P S Si Al Ti B Cu
Remainder 8.0-10.0 20.5-23.0 17.0-20.0 .2-1.0 .5-2.5 1.0 max .05-.15 .04 max .03 max 1.0 max .50 max .15 max .01 max .50 max

In what applications is Hastelloy X used?

  • Gas turbines
  • Petrochemical industry
  • Industrial furnaces
  • Heat treating equipment
  • Nuclear engineering
  • Jet engine combustion chambers
  • Aircraft cabin heaters
  • Turbine exhaust components

Alloy X is one of the most widely used nickel base superalloys for gas turbine engine combustion zone components such as transition ducts, combustor cans, spray bars and flame holders as well as in afterburners, tailpipes and cabin heaters. It is recommended for use in industrial furnace applications because it has unusual resistance to oxidizing, reducing and neutral atmospheres. Hastelloy X is also used in the chemical process industry for retorts, muffles, catalysts support grids, furnace baffles, tubing for pyrolysis operations and flash drier components.

Fabrication with Hastelloy X

Alloy X has excellent forming and welding characteristics. It can be forged and, because of its good ductility, can be cold worked. It can be welded by both manual and automatic methods including shielded metal arc, gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc and submerged arc processes. The alloy can also be resistance welded. For hot forming, the alloy should be heated to a starting temperature of 2150° F (1175°C).

ASTM Specifications

Sheet/Plate Bar
B435 B572

Mechanical Properties

Representative Tensile Properties, sheet

Temp° F Tensile (psi) .2% Yield (psi) Elongation in 2” %
70 110,600 54,900 44
1000 89,000 35,600 49
1200 83,000 35,400 54
1400 67,000 34,400 53
1600 45,000 28,200 58

Hastelloy C-4

Chemical compostion of Hastelloy C-4:

Alloy

%

Ni

Cr

Mo

Fe

C

Mn

Si

Co

S

P

Ti

C-4

Min.

65

14

14

 

 

 

Max.

 

18

17

3.0

0.01

1.0

0.08

2.0

0.010

0.025

0.70

Physical properties of Hastelloy C-4:

Density

8.64 g/cm3

Melting point

1350-1400 ℃

Minimum mechanical properties in the room temperature of Hastelloy C-4:
Alloy
Tensile strength
Rm N/mm2
Yield strength
RP0.2N/mm2
Elongation
A5 %
C-4
783
365
55

Hastelloy C-4 alloy is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with outstanding high-temperature stability as evidenced by high ductility and corrosion resistance even

after aging in the 1200 to 1900°F (649 to 1038°C) range. This alloy resists the formation of grain-boundary precipitates in the weld heat-affected zone, thus making it suitable for most chemical process applications in the as-welded condition. C-4 alloy also has excellent resistance to stress-corrosion cracking and to oxidizing atmospheres up to 1900°F (1038°C).
Hastelloy C-4 alloy has exceptional resistance to wide variety of chemical process environments. These include hot contaminated mineral acids, solvents, chlorine and chlorine contaminated media (organic and inorganic), dry chlorine, formic and acetic acids, acetic anhydride, and seawater and brine solutions.
Hastelloy C-4 alloy can be forged, hot-upset, and impact extruded. Although the alloy tends to work-harden, it can be successfully deep-drawn, spun, press formed or
punched. All of the common methods of welding can be used to weld HASTELLOY C-4 alloy, although the oxy-acetylene and submerged arc processes are not recommended when the fabricated item is intended for use in corrosion service. Special precautions should be taken to avoid excessive heat input.

Hastelloy B

Chemical compostion of Hastelloy B:
Alloy 
%
Ni 
Mo 
Fe 
Cr 
Co 
Mn 
V
Si 
P
Hastelloy B
Min. 
Balance 
26
4.0
 
 
 
 
0.2
 
 
 
Max. 
30
6.0
1.0
2.5
0.05
1.0
0.4
1.0
0.04
0.03
Hastelloy B-2
Min. 
Balance 
26
2.0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Max. 
30
7.0
1.0
1.0
0.02
1.0
 
0.1
0.04
0.03

Physical properties of Hastelloy B:
Density
9.24g/cm3
Melting point
1330-1380℃

Minimum mechanical properties in the room temperature of Hastelloy B:
Alloy state
Tensile strength
Rm N/mm2
Yield strength
RP0.2N/mm2
Elongation
A5 %
Hastelloy B
690
310
40

Characteristic:
1. Control of iron and chromium content to a minimum to prevent the generation of β-phase Ni4Mo. 
2. Excellent corrosion resistance of restore environment. 
3. An excellent resist to concentration sulfuric acid medium and large number of non-oxidizing acid corrosion. 
4. A very good resistance of chloride reduction of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). 
5. Good corrosion resistance of various organic acids.

Metallurgical structure
Hastelloy B-2 is the face-centered cubic lattice structure. By controlling the content of iron and chromium at the minimum to reduce the processing brittle, prevent Ni4Mo precipitation during 700-870 ℃.

Corrosion resistance
Ni-Mo alloy Hastelloy B-2, the carbon and silicon content is extremely low, reducing the HAZ carbon and other impurities  precipitation, so the weld has sufficient corrosion resistance. Alloy Hastelloy B-2 in the reduction of medium with very good corrosion resistance, such as a various temperature and concentration of hydrochloric acid. In the middle of the concentration of sulfuric acid solution (or contain a certain amount of chloride ions) also has very good corrosion resistance. At the same time can be used to acetic acid and phosphoric acid environment. Alloy material suitable only in the metallurgical structure and pure crystal structure in order to have the best corrosion resistance.

Applied field:
Alloy Hastelloy B-2 with a wide range of applications in the field of chemical, petrochemical, energy manufacturing and pollution control , particularly in the sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, acetic acid, and other industries.

Source: China Hastelloy Alloy Flanges Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.steeljrv.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

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Summary
what is hastelloy alloy - What is hastelloy alloy?
Article Name
What is hastelloy alloy?
Description
Hastelloy steel is a kind of nickel base alloy, which is mainly divided into B, C and G series at present. It is mainly used in iron-based Cr Ni or Cr Ni Mo stainless steel, non-metallic materials and other occasions with strong corrosive media that cannot be used.
Author
Publisher Name
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