What is the difference between I-beam and H-beam?
It is often asked that the shape of I-beam is similar to that of H-beam. How to choose it in practice? Many people who have been engaged in the construction industry for many years cannot explain it in detail.
Here’s a detailed answer for you: many people think that I-beam is called in China and H-beam is called in foreign countries. In fact, this cognition is wrong. H-beam and I-beam are different in shape, as shown in the following figure:
What is I-beam?
I-beam, also known as universal beam, is a long steel with I-beam section. I-beam is divided into ordinary I-beam and light I-beam. It is a I-section steel.
I-beam is mainly divided into ordinary I-beam, light I-beam and wide flange I-beam. According to the height ratio of flange and web, it can be divided into wide, medium and narrow flange I-beam. The first two specifications are 10-60, that is, the corresponding height is 10 cm-60 cm.
At the same height, light I-beam has narrow flange, thin web and light weight. Wide flange I-beam, also known as H-beam, is characterized by parallel legs and no inclination inside the legs. It belongs to economic section steel and is rolled on four high universal mill, so it is also called “Universal I-beam”. Ordinary I-beam and light I-beam have formed national standards.
As shown in the name, I-beam is a “I” section steel. The inner surface of the upper and lower flanges has an inclination of 1:6, which makes the outer flange thin and the inner flange thick. As a result, the cross-section characteristics of I-beam in the two main planes are greatly different, which is difficult to play in the application.
Strength characteristics. Although I-beam is also thickened in the market, the structure of I-beam has determined its short plate of torsional resistance.
What are I-Beams used for?
I-beams have a variety of important uses in the structural steel construction industry. They are often used as critical support trusses, or the main framework, in buildings. Steel I-beams ensure a structure’s integrity with relentless strength and support. The immense power of I beams reduces the need to include numerous support structures, saving time and money, as well as making the structure more stable. The versatility and dependability of I-beams make them a coveted resource to every builder.
Commonly termed an “I” beam because of its shape, beams provide great load bearing support when used horizontally or standing as columns. I-beams are the choice shape for structural steel builds because the I-beam makes it uniquely capable of handling a variety of loads. The shape of I-beams makes them excellent for unidirectional bending parallel to the web. The horizontal flanges resist the bending movement, while the web resists the shear stress.
Understanding the I-beam is a basic necessity for the modern civil engineer or construction worker. Engineers use I-beams widely in construction, forming columns and beams of many different lengths, sizes, and specifications.
An I-beam is made by rolling or milling steel which means the I-beam is often limited by the capacity or size of the milling equipment.
I-beams come in a variety of weights, section depths, flange widths, web thicknesses, and other specifications for different purposes. When ordering I-beams, buyers classify them by their material and dimensions. For example, an 11×20 I-beam would have an 11-inch depth and a weight of 20 pounds per foot. Builders choose specific sizes of I-beams according to the needs of the particular building. A builder has to take many factors into account, such as:
- The builder chooses an I-beam with a web thickness that won’t fail, buckle, or ripple under tension.
- The flanges are chosen to prevent buckling locally, sideways, or torsionally.
- The builder will choose a thickness to minimize deformation of the beam.
- A certain mass and stiffness are selected to prevent vibrations in the building.
- The strength of the I-beam’s cross-section should accommodate yield stress.
What is H-beam?
H-section steel is a kind of economic section high-efficiency profile with more optimized section area distribution and more reasonable strength weight ratio. It is named because its section is the same as the English letter “H”. As the H-beam is arranged at right angles, the H-beam has bending resistance in all directions
It has been widely used for its strong ability, simple construction, cost saving and light structure weight.
H-section steel is widely used in today’s steel structure construction. Compared with I-section steel, it has many differences. The first is the flange, the second is that the inner surface of the flange has no inclination, and the upper and lower surfaces are parallel. The section characteristic of H-beam is better than that of I-beam, channel and angle steel。
The inner and outer sides of the flange of H-beam are parallel or close to parallel, and the flange ends are at right angles, so it is named parallel flange I-beam. The web thickness of H-beam is smaller than that of common I-beam with the same height of web, and the flange width is larger than that of common I-beam with the same height of web, so it is also called wide edge I-beam. Determined by the shape, the section modulus, the moment of inertia and the corresponding strength of H-beam are obviously superior to the common I-beam of the same single weight. It can be used in metal structures with different requirements, whether it bears bending moment, pressure load or eccentric load, which shows its superior performance. Compared with ordinary I-beam, it can greatly improve the bearing capacity and save 10% – 40% of metal. H-section steel has wide flange, thin web, many specifications and flexible use. It can save 15% – 20% metal in various truss structures. Because the inner and outer sides of the flange are parallel and the flange ends are at right angles, it is convenient to assemble and assemble various components, thus saving about 25% of the welding and riveting work, greatly speeding up the construction speed of the project and shortening the construction period.
H-section steel is a kind of economic section high-efficiency profile with more optimized section area distribution and more reasonable strength weight ratio. It is named because its section is the same as the English letter “H”. The two outer sides of H-beam have no inclination inside and are straight. This makes the welding splice ratio of H-beam
I-beam is easy to operate and has better mechanical properties per unit weight, which can save a lot of materials and construction time.
The section of I-beam has good straight pressure and tensile resistance, but the section size is too narrow to resist torsion due to the wing plate. H steel, on the other hand, has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Difference and application of H-beam and I-beam?
- 1. I-section steel, whether ordinary or light, has relatively high and narrow section size, so the moment of inertia of the two main sleeves of the section is quite different. Therefore, it can only be directly used for members bending in the web plane or forming lattice stress structure
- Pieces. It is not suitable to use the axial compression members or the members which are perpendicular to the web plane and have bending, which makes them have great limitations in the scope of application.
- 2. H-section steel is a kind of high-efficiency and economic cutting profile (other are cold-formed thin-walled section steel, profiled steel plate, etc.), because of the reasonable section shape, they can make the steel more efficient and improve the cutting capacity. Different from the common I-beam, the flange of H-beam is widened,
- And the inner and outer surfaces are usually parallel, so that it is convenient to connect with other components with high-strength bolts. Its size and structure are reasonable series, and its model is complete, which is convenient for design and selection. (except I-beam for crane beam)
- 3. The flange of H-beam is of equal thickness, with rolling section and combined section composed of 3 plates welded. I-beams are all rolled sections. Due to poor production technology, the inner edge of the flange has a slope of 1:10. The rolling of H-beam is different from that of common I-beam, only one set of water is used
- Because of its wide flange and no inclination (or little inclination), a group of vertical rollers must be added to roll at the same time. Therefore, the rolling process and equipment are more complex than ordinary rolling mill. The height of the largest rolled H-beam that can be produced in China is 800mm, which exceeds
- Can be a welded composite section.
- 4. I-beam has small side length and high height, and can only bear single direction force.
- 5. H-shaped steel groove is deep and thick, which can bear forces in two directions.
- 6. With the development of steel structure building, only I-beam is not allowed, I-beam is thickened, which is easy to lose stability when used for bearing column.
- 7. I-beam can only be used for cross beam, while H-beam can be used for bearing column of structure.
- 8. H-section steel is an economic section steel with better mechanical properties than I-section steel. It is named because its section shape is the same as the English letter “H”. The flange of hot-rolled H-beam is wider than that of I-beam, with larger lateral rigidity and stronger bending resistance. Weight of H-beam under the same specification
- Lighter than I-beam. Wechat for manufacturing principle, good content, worthy of attention.
- 9. The flange of I-beam is thick on the web with variable wearing surface and thin on the outside; the flange of H-beam is equal wearing surface.
- 10. Hwhm HN h is the general term for H-beam, which is welded; hwhm HN is hot rolled.
- 11. HW is H-shaped steel height and flange width are basically equal; it is mainly used for steel core column in reinforced concrete frame structural column, also known as rigid steel column; it is mainly used for column in steel structure.
- 12. HM is the ratio of H-beam height and flange width is about 1.33 – 1.75; mainly used as steel frame column in steel structure and as frame beam in frame structure bearing dynamic load; for example, equipment platform.
- 13. HN is the ratio of H-beam height and flange width is greater than or equal to 2; it is mainly used for beams; I-beam is used for the same purpose as HN steel.
Manufacturing of Beam
Source: China Stainless Steel Beam Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.steeljrv.com)
(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)
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